Event Numbers
661 Papers
663 Abstracts
562 Presentations
27 Videos
5 Technical Reports
5 Proceedings

Conference Prodeedings and Technical Reports

Presented Papers (abstracts, papers and presentations)


Conferences (abstracts, presentations and videos)

Institutional Conferences and Plenary Presentations (abstracts, presentations and videos)

Reports of Paulista Cleaner Production Roundtable Regional Committees (presentations)

Workshops (presentations and complementary material)

Conference Proceedings and Technical Reports
A - B

A Comparative Survey among Emergy Indices and More Usual Sustainability Indexes

P. A. Frugoli, A. P. Z. dos Santos, A. D. Frugoli (UNIP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract:The search for sustainability and the growing concern about the environmental degradation attract more and more researchers from all over the world, therefore, there is the need of development of indexes that include the economy, society and environment. This study applies the emergy synthesis with the aim of determine its indexes and compare them with well known indexes obtained from the literature. The natural resources flows (renewable and non renewable) and the resources from the economy of the countries are evaluated for the calculation of emergy indexes. Correlations were made between the calculated indexes with the well known indexes taken from the literature. The best correlation results were obtained between the Human Development Index and the Ecological Footprint (HDIxEF) and between the Surplus Biocapacity Index and the Environmental Sustainability Indice (SB x ESI).

Keywords:Emergy synthesis, indexes, sustainability, countries.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

A Cleaner Production Process of Sodium Dichromate Via Pressure Oxidative Leaching of Chromite

XU H. B.; SHI Y. L.; ZHANG H. L.; CHENG X. C.; PEI L. L.; LIU J. W.; QING P. H.; TIAN Y.; CAI. Z. H.; ZHANG Y. (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) 

Abstract: Chromium compounds are important basic chemicals and find application in various industrial fields. The environmental problems resulted from the traditional production process of sodium dichromate have spawned worldwide public concerns. With a design objective to eliminate pollution at the source, a cleaner production process of sodium dichromate was developed, and the cleaner process has successfully achieved higher resource utilization efficiency and zero emission of the chromium-containing residue.

In the cleaner process, the conversion from chromite ore to sodium dichromate includes four steps: (1) the pressure oxidative leaching of chromite ore with concentrated NaOH solution; (2) the extraction of NaOH with CH3OH from the solid mixture of chromite ore leaching residues (COPRs) and sodium chromate crystal; (3) the distillation and recovery of CH3OH from aqueous concentrated NaOH solution; and (4) the manufacturing of sodium dichromate from the COPR containing sodium chromate crystal.

It was found that, under the optimal conditions, the chemical conversion ratio of trivalent chromium in chromite through Step (1) can be up to 95% or higher, the trivalent chromium content in COPRs is below 1.2% by weight (counted as Cr2O3), and the hexavalent chromium content in COPRs is even lower than 0.1% by weight (counted as Cr+6). In Steps (2) and (3), the recovery efficiencies of NaOH and CH3OH are as high as 96% and 98%, respectively. Especially, the final emission amount of COPRs is only 750 kilograms per ton of sodium dichromate product, much lower than that in the traditional soda-ash roasting process and no higher than that in the calciumfree roasting process.

Based on the cleaner process, a demonstrative pilot plant with an annual capability of 5000 tons of sodium dichromate is to be built up in Huangshi City, Hubei Province, China. The cleaner process has exhibited a promising prospect in the industrial production of sodium dichromate.

Keywords: chromite, pressure leaching, sodium dichromate, extraction, CH3OH


A Lean & Green Model for a Value Stream

PAMPANELLI, A. B. (GKN Driveline Americas)

Abstract: Following the paper “A Lean & Green Model for a production cell”, published by Journal of Cleaner Production in December, 2014 (Pampanelli et al., 2014), the main objective of this paper is to propose the extension of the Lean & Green Model for the second level of flow, the Lean & Green Business Model (L&GBM) for a value stream (VS), understanding its main characteristics and differences. Studies developed confirmed that traditional VS thinking (divided by product families) is not applicable for solving with environmental problems in a manufacturing environment. Following this finding, theL&GBM for second level flow was developed and tested in a single multinational engineering company, including the results of the model application at the value stream level. Such findings confirm that the Lean & Green Model can reduce resources use in a VS level from 2 to 40% and save R$ 1,5Mi.

Keywords: Lean, Lean and Green, Kaizen, Value Stream

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

A Multidisciplinary Approach Towards the Introduction of Cleaner Production in Higher Education Curricula: A Case Study from TEC de Costa Rica

ROA-GUTIERREZ, F.; ARIAS, A. L.; CHAVES ABARCA, R.; JAUBERT-SOLANO, W.;  ROBLES OBANDO, N.; VALERIO-VINDAS, J. J. (Costa Rica Technological Institute, Costa Rica); ASHTON, W. S.; HURTADO-MARTIN, M. (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA) 

Abstract: During the execution of the project “Pathways to Cleaner Production in the Americas through the integration of Business, Engineering and Environmental Education”, the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica(ITCR) established a multidisciplinary team including 6 professors from 4 departments (Environmental Engineering, Industrial Production Engineering, AgriBusiness, and Business Administration). Some courses ofthe above mentioned careerprograms originally included contents covering principles and concepts from Cleaner Production (CP) from a specific field perspective disregarding a multi and transdisciplinary approach of the CP. The academic profiles in terms of capacities and competences were analyzed to evolve towards a multidisciplinary approach by converging different professional capacities to achieve an improved implementation of CP in industries through a practicum. Presently, a pilot plan is being carried out using a multidisciplinary team of 6 advanced student from different programs. The methodology proposed includes short training in CP principles and concepts, data collection through visits to industries,data analysis in group sessions, improvement opportunities identification, and financial analysis. The recruitment of students for the pilot plan was carried out under voluntary and extracurricular terms, and supervised by the professors contributing in the Pathways project. The pilot plan will work with agrochemical formulation and distribution businesses located in Cartago. It is foreseen that in the near future, the methodology of CP implementation described in this paper could be formalized as an alternative modality to fulfill the professional practice required for most of ITCR programs. It is expected that the students would not only improve their CP knowledge and professional profile but also team work capacity. This paper presents the results of the project as a case study for ITCR.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Multidisciplinary Education, Higher Education

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]

A Multi-Sectorial Analysis of a Waste to Energy Plant

CUCCHIELLA, F.; D'ADAMO, I.; GASTALDI, M. (University of L'Aquila, Italy) 

Abstract: Currently waste management is a critical issue for several countries. Separate collection and recycling activities are growing; Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Austria and Denmark have drastically reduced the use of the landfill while Italy, United Kingdom and Spain give half of their waste to landfill. Real case studies and scientific papers have demonstrated the benefits of the waste to energy (WTE) facilities compared to the traditional incinerators. Typologies of waste suitable for the energy recovery are: unsorted waste, dry fraction from mechanical biological treatment, refuse-derived fuels (RDF) and also some special waste (e.g. medical). To focus on waste management in Italy, this study uses a multi-sectorial analysis for a region, Abruzzo, reporting a high rate of landfilling. Plant dimensioning, comparison between WTE strategies, centralized or decentralized solution, location of plant are proposed and economic, environmental, financial and social analysis verify the sustainability of the suggested solution. The outcomes deriving from the present research could be extended in developing countries where ever-increasing amounts of solid waste accompany rapid economic and population growth. Relevant is the municipalities ability to sustainably manage it all and solutions to these problems may be found in the results of the present research.

Keywords: quantitative analysis, sensitivity analysis, sustainability, waste to energy, multi-sectorial analysis

[Abstract] [Paper]

A Research on the Awareness Toward Sustainable Production Aspects

A. R. Sacomano, P. L. O. Costa Neto (UNIP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: In this paper it is present part of a broader research named “Social Responsibility as an Element do Sustainability, Quality of Products and Services and Quality of Life”, part which deals with the awareness on sustainable production of entities related to the subject and professionals classified in lawyers and others. By selecting the mentioned part of the broader research, this one carried on during a master degree work, the authors aim to show points of Brazilian reality related to this awareness, in order to indicate its progresses and omissions with respect to the thought on social responsibility and sustainability, so wishing to contribute for the adoption of propositions able to improve this degree of awareness in Brazil, including a better commitment of the legal professionals.

Keywords: Sustainability, social responsibility, lawyers, awareness, quality of life

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


A Study on the use of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI) in Environmental Management Systems (EMS)

D. M. Heinzen (IFSC), L. M. S. Campos e P. A. C. Miguel (UFSC) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Environment issues have gained greater evidence on the corporate agenda nowadays. The view that pollution is only one undesirable consequence is no longer endorsed by organizations, bringing up the importance of managing their environmental issues. Facing this challenge, one of the actions taken by the companies has been the implementation and certification of an environmental management system (EMS). In this sense, the aim of this paper is to present a set of environmental performance measures used to manage the EMS and that can contribute to the effectiveness of ISO 14001 system. This research is exploratory and descriptive, conducted through a survey. Data was collected by an instrument sent to ISO 14001 certified companies in the Santa Catarina State in Brazil. The target companies were from various economic sectors. The target population consisted of 73 organizations and accessible population resulted in 62 companies. From those, 39 companies participated in the survey. The results show the characteristics of respondents and the most used environmental performance mesures according to the requirements of the standard. Findings have shown that companies mostly adopt environmental performance mesures more directly associated with the legal requirements (legal and other requirements, preparation and emergency response, evaluation of legal and other requirements and environmental aspects). In addition, the following economic sectors that "always" and/or "often" used most measures are: Pulp and Paper/Furniture/Wood, Textiles, Metals and Electrical/Electrical and Electronic.

Keywords: Environmental performance indicators, EPI, environmental management systems, EMS, ISO 14001.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Absence of the Impact of the Loss of Biodiversity in LCA Studies of Sustainable Construction: Unfamiliarity or Leniency?


Abstract: Fundamental part of the LCA methodology, the definition of environmental impact categories does not usually incorporate in studies related to constructive sustainability, biodiversity loss. Among the reasons, it can superficially suppose a few reasons: the complexity of the issue, the difficulty of valuation, the anthropocentric view of society, ignorance of the importance of ecosystem services for the maintenance of the balance of the planet, among others. This paper recognizes the complexity of the issue and understands that there is no way to ignore the responsibilities of the Brazilian construction sector by the large participation in the deterioration of the natural environment framework. In this sense, using the exploratory research, seeks to deepen another possible cause: the lack of experts in sustainable buildings.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Sustainable Building, LCA, Environmental Impact

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Accounting Contributions in Emergy for the National Solid Waste Policy

C. A. Di Agustini (FGV); L. P. Vendrametto (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The current Brazilian Bill for Solid Waste will impact 5564 Brazilian municipalities, which need to be mobilized to adopt policies and actions for waste treatment in accordance with the Act. The project may empower millions of businesses and individuals, because in case of damage involving solid waste responsibility for the implementation of corrective measures, they will be charged from the causer of the damage, jointly with its generator. Product life cycle, environmentally appropriate final destination, and flow of solid waste integrated management are objects of this Project Act. It presents the accounting in emergy as an alternative to consistently assess the impacts of solid waste on the biosphere, because its amplitude goes beyond the frontiers of economic and production systems (extraction, production, use and disposal), breaking into the environment of ecosystems. It also presents some experiences with this methodology as a tool to support integrated management of solid wastes, establishing performance indicators and assessment of environmental impacts. Mankind has walked to the degradation of the natural environment, and needs to decide whether “homo sapiens” will pollute the natural resources with enormous damage to the biosphere, or manage the waste in an integrated manner with the ecosystems in order to keep them sustainable. The accounting in emergy is an important step to assess the ability of Earth to sustain our species.

Keywords: Solid waste, legislation, life cycle, emergy, indicators of sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

ACS Summer School in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Energy: Fomenting Awareness and Creativity for Innovative Chemistry


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The concept and applications of Green Chemistry are not a novelty in countries with a well-established chemical industry and universities. Since awareness about su stainability and environment is increasing exponent ially, investment in education and in academic areas is viable not only to foment research and development in side the scientific community but also to provide an exchang e of ideas potentially applicable to achieve the go als implicit in the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry. Remarkab ly, the American Chemical Society has been committed to Sustainable Energy and Green Chemistry since 2003, with an initiative of holding a series of meetings as Summer Schools gathering graduate students and postdocs in volved with R&D in the areas of environment, green chemistry and sustainability with sponsorship of va rious oundations resulting in no cost for the acce pted applicants. The Summer School happens every year and offers in one week lectures, applied exercises and interactive activities, enabling networking between representatives of industries, researchers and the students themselves. Even though applications are only accep ted from students of the Americas, students from nationalities of all around the world who study in the Americas have attended the ACS Summer School.

Keywords: Green chemistry, sustainability, sustainable energy, education.

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Action of Chemical Leasing in Production Processes aimed at Sustainability


Abstract: The Chemical Leasing is a model geared to the activities of buying and selling of chemicals, where the manufacturer seeks to develop productivity, through the efficient use of chemicals and the interest of the parties involved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the proposal of chemical leasing as a more sustainable alternative of the manufactures and consumers of chemical in its manufacturing process. The attention turns to acceptance of a partnership model between manufacturer and consumer of chemicals attention turns to acceptance of a partnership model between manufacturer and consumer of chemicals with the provision of chemical solution service, consisting of orientation, process optimization and rationalization of usage, that shifts the focus from the increase in sales volume, to a value-added approach aiming to achieve sustainability. The approach used was the exploratory study designed from already published material. To the relationship between the traditional models oriented to sales volume, and the products and services-oriented model. The contribution is in possibly point out that companies using management model aimed at the sharing of responsibilities in the interests of sustainability, can expect a reduction of costs compared to traditional systems, and that this format of shared management saves natural resources. And so, possibly reducing the quantities of chemicals, which can have a negative impact on human health and the environment.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Sustainability, Chemical Leasing, Industry, Green Chemistry.

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Additional Step in PET Recyling to Enhance Properties

S. D. Mancini; J. A. S. Schwartzman; A. R. Nogueira; D. A. Kagohara (UNESP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Poly (ethylene terephthalate) – PET - recycling usually involves grinding, washing, drying and reprocessing. This study presents the results of an extra step in PET recycling: a chemical washing after the conventional one, aiming the production of more valuable recycled polymers. Oil PET bottles flakes were washed only with water and then submitted to reaction with aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide 5M at 90°C for 10 minutes (chemical washing). After rinsing and drying, the flakes were characterized by thermogravimetric and elemental analysis tests. The results indicated a higher purity of the chemical washed material in comparison with PET washed only with water: 99,3% and 96,7%, respectively.

Keywords: Recycling, PET, washing

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Adequacy to environmental law and to economic production: a study of Missal municipality (PR) - 2005-2007

F. L. S. Campos; P. G. S. C. M. Gomes (Faculdade Anglo-Americana-PR); D. Mondardo; K. S. Fernandes; L. B. dos Santos (UTFPR)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The occupation of the Brazilian territory was always accomplished without planning, causing great damage to the environment. This study intends to compare the economical losses with the adaptation to the environmental legislation (Brazilian Law 4.771, of 15/09/1965), of the realized economic activities in the municipal district of Missal (PR), in the period of 2005-2007, with the earnings of the environmental improvement and the "sale" of quotas of CO2. After visits to the studied area, the use of GPS and economical calculations and you adapt, it could be concluded that the environmental and economical earnings are larger than the costs associated to the environmental handling.

Keywords: Environmental legislation, economic production, Missal


Adsorption of Acid Orange 8 from Aqueous Solution onto Zeolites Synthesized from Coal Fly Ashes Modified by Surfactant


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The adsorption of Acid Orange 8 (AL8) over zeolites from coal fly ashes modified by surfactant was evaluated. The coal ashes used in the synthesis of zeolite (ZCC) by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in thermal power plants Jorge Lacerda (SC) and Figueira (PR). The modification of zeolites was performed by mixing ZCC with the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide a nd the materials obtained were modified zeolite Jorge Lacerda (ZMJ) and modified zeolite Figueira (ZMF). The dye adsorption equilibrium was reached after 90 min for ZMF and ZMJ. The experimental data were best fitted to the kinetic model of pseudo-second-order for both adsorbents. The adsorption equilibrium was described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and Freundlich model was the most compatible with the experimental data for ZMJ and ZMF. The maximum adsorption capacities were 5.29 mg g-1 for the AL8/ZMJ and 1.79 mg g-1 for the AL8/ZMF.

Keywords: zeolite; coal fly ashes; modified zeolites; acid dye; adsorption.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Adsorption of Reactive Black 5 Dye From Aqueous Solution By Coal Fly Ash

P. Cunico; C. P. Magdalena; T. E. M. Carvalho; D. A. Fungaro (IPEN-CENEN - São Paulo)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The fly ash (CC6), a waste generated in a coal-fired electric power generation, was used as adsorbent to remove Reactive Black 5 (RP 5) dye from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time was investigated on the adsorption process. The amounts adsorbed at equilibrium were measured. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were tested for their applicability. The isotherm adsorption data fit accordingly to the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg/g. The experimental results showed a high percentage removal of 44 to 91% for CC6. The high percentage removal of RB 5 dye onto fly ashes revealed that these materials could potentially be used as adsorbents in the reactive dye removal from textile wastewater.

Keywords: Adsorbent, dye, fly ash, reactive black 5

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Adsorption of Rhodamine B Dye from Aqueous Solution by Surfactant Modificed Zeolite from Coal Bottom Ash


Abstract: Zeolitic material synthesized from coal bottom ash was modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. Surfactant modified zeolite (ZMSPB) was used as alternative low cost adsorbent for removal of Rhodamine B (RB) dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption equilibration was attained after 40 min of the contact time. The adsorption kinetics was tested for models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich. The adsorption isotherm was analyzed using non-linear equations of the model Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using error functions. The obtained adsorption data were better described by the D-R model. The results showed that ZMSPB is a good adsorbent for the removal of RB from aqueous effluent.

Keywords: Zeolite, Adsorption, Rhodamine B, Coal bottom ash.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Advantages of Cleaner Production Implementation

O. D. Perretti; N. Palmeri; G. Oliveira Neto; R. Kronig; O. Vendrametto (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The increasing ecological awareness, ambient preservation, social justice and concern with the future generations are directly related to the sustainable development of the companies. This article approaches the concept of Cleaner Production organized for activities of production and the positive effect to the environment. Through examples of improvement of packings, applied in a big multinational company installed in Brazil and in a small national industry, it is demonstrated the search for the improvement in its processes and the phases of the production cycle that can adjust the ambiently acceptable criteria

Keywords: Cleaner production, sustainable development, environment

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Aggregating the Environmental Benefits and Economic Benefits: A case study with application of CP

K. Faccin (UCS); T. Benvenuti (UERGS); D. Maffessoni (UERGS); J. M. Rocha (UNIPAMPA)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The new economic context, based on fierce competition in the quest for market leadership, coupled with the rigid posture of customers, focused on the expectation to interact with organizations that are ethical, with good corporate image in the market and act in environmentally responsible, makes that companies seek to increase efficiency in the use of raw materials, water and energy through the non-generation, minimization or recycling of waste and emissions generated, bringing environmental benefits, occupational health and economic. This article describes the implementation of a program for cleaner production (P + L) in a typical metalworking firm, located in the cluster's production serra gaúcha. The methods used were the single case study and action research. We used several sources of data such as: documents, index, written reports and spreadsheets used by the company. This study aimed to contribute to the clarification of this issue, considered in the emerging globalized world. We tried to also provide information that could help with the learning of other organizations that are in this same context, and emphasize the benefits of P + L for businesses. With the implementation of cleaner production methodology of the company significantly reduced the generation of waste and the costs associated with them. It also reduced costs to the consumption of raw materials. With minimum investment return in that small space of time could accumulate economic and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Cleaner Production. productive efficiency. economic benefits, environmental benefits

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Air Pollution Emissions Trade of State of São Paulo

A. F. P. Pedro; S. P. Nogueira; F. D. Soler (Pedro Pinheiro Advogados)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The necessity of compatible economic-social development with a minimization increasing effects of the pollution levels, and the degradation of air quality took the Estate of São Paulo to publish Decrees number 48.523/04 and number 50.753/06, “Decrees of Aerial Basin”. Those norms conjugate instruments of command and economic control for environment management of emissions, supporting in strong ness of the market to change the behavior of the industrious. In this way, sprouting the Atmospheric Emission Reduction Units (CEAR’s), like instrument of market which aim to guarantee economic and environment efficiency for the control of the air pollution, stimulating new sources already created to investing in technologies to generate credits and later sell it. After that, was necessary creating the Paulista Market of Atmospheric Emission (MPEA), aim of this study, which is an environment of negotiation of right to use the credits. This market now, is in phase of consolidation and is a simplified system, with aim the transmit credibility and transparency to the transference processes of CEAR’s, everything according to the environment protection and Brazilian Civil Code. The Paulista’s Atmospheric Emission Market aims the act of captivating founds more efficiently, as the enterpriser decides about the most convenient strategy, investing in the atmospheric polluter emission reduction in the industrial plant or acquiring rights with sellers who produced and detain CEAR’s.

Keywords: Emission market; aerial basin; economical instruments; atmospheric emission reduction units (CEAR’s)

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Air Treatment Station: A Proposal Air Pollution Reduction


Abstract: Evaluate the implementation of a project to build Air Treatment Station (ATS's) that are designed to filter out polluting particles suspended in the air and humidifies it. Although the city of São Paulo is used as a reference for research, air pollution is a global issue that is the cause of serious problems to man, characterized as a public health problem. An ATS can be built in different scales and can contribute to improving air quality both indoors establishments like hospitals and underground stations subway as in open areas such as roads and industrial zones.

Keywords: Air Treatment Station; Air Pollution; Particles in suspension; soot; Public health.

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Alternative Fuels and Cogeneration for Reducing CO2 Emissions

J. A. P. Balestieri (UNESP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Cogeneration is growing worldwide based on the burning of fossil fuels – especially natural gas. Although its low emission factors, it is important to consider that the availability of natural resources must be taken into account for a long-term investment in the energy generation sector. The identification of alternative renewable fuels and the integration of cogeneration to certain industrial processes that produce some of these alternative fuels are evaluated in this paper.

Keywords: Cogeneration, alternative fuels, CO2 emissions minimization

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Alternative Sustainable Dyeing of Textiles with Ionic Liquid


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The dyeing processes are extremely important for the differentiation and marketing of textile products. The dyeing takes place by fixing the dye molecule to the fibers, usually aqueous, that is, using water as the primary solvent for the process. It is estimated that spends on average 125 liters of water per kilogram of textile article produced. Whereas there is currently great interest in finding environmentally sustainable substances for this process, one of the alternatives is the use of Ionic Liquid (IL) as solvent substance for dyeing textiles due to its low cost, simple synthesis, biodegradation of high character and abi lity reuse. The Protic Ionic Liquids (LIP) are prod uced by acid- base reaction. Until now, there has been few studies directed towards application LI for application to textile dyeing thus justified studies in this area. This study will present multi-fiber textile dyeing fabrics using Ionic Liquids base Diethanolamine (DEA) as a solvent instead of water. The analyzes of the results will be made in equipment spectrophotometer, observing the graph of K/S.

Keywords: Textile Dyeing, Dye, Fiber, Ionic Liquid, Sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Alternatives Reuse for Waste of Treatment Plants Water and Sewage: The Brazilian Situation


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The existence of an environmental sanitation system that meets the population for public water supply and sewage is so relevant for basic needs. This infrast ructure prevents water borne diseases and improves life's quality. However, the treatment process of water and out puts produces solid waste. Therefore, this activity has brought concerns about the proper disposal of these wastes produced by Treatment Stations Water –ETA, and Sewage-ETE. The waste accumulated during the treatment process has as destination the aquatic system and soils of land near the stations. This is deposited in nature form, without any pretreatment, which causes large environmental damage by insertion of chemical and biological contaminants in these environments, contained in the waste disposed. So-called sludge ETA and ETE possess highly toxic organic load to the environment. The adoption of alternative measures for proper disposal is an urgent issue. This approach brings work on reuse of material from the procedures operating of stations in some segments identified as units of utilization of these wastes.

Keywords: Sanitation. Solid waste. Reuse.

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Ambiental Valoration and Energy Generation with System Subproduct of Urban Solid Waste for Pirolysys


Abstract: The biosphere’s capacity to absorb the waste generated by society has been long overcharged. Every year it is generated around 1.8 billion tons of urban solid waste (USW) in the world. Brazil produces 7.5 million tons and disposes 58.3% in landfills, and the rest is deposited in controlled landfills and open dumpsites. The appropriate USW management problem has showed to be a challenge, as factors such as quantity, volume, variety and complexity of waste entail risks for human health and the environment. Regulations implanted in Brazil in 2010 encourage the adoption of new alternatives for waste treatment and the development of clean technologies as a way to minimize environmental impacts, as well as technologies that aim to the urban solid waste’s energy recovery. In this sense, this study uses the emergy synthesis to evaluate a pioneer USW treatment system in Brazil – the Natureza Limpa Project – installed in the municipality of Unaí in Minas Gerais state, where the slow pyrolysis treatment for urban solid waste is applied. The indicators justify that the system is capable of performing gains in joules of energy (J) and emergy (sej) and presents great potential not only for waste treatment in Brazil, but also as a promising energy source, which is capable to assist on the energy demand by means of the exceeding production of 2.3 tons of charred urban waste, which is capable of producing 3.25x103 joules of energy per gram of treated waste.

Keywords: Emergy, USW treatment, pyrolysis, Natureza Limpa Project

 [Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]

An International Review of Sustainability in Higher Education Studies: A Messy Concept with Contradictory Attitudes

VIEGAS, C. V. (UNISINOS); BOND, A. J. (University of East Anglia, UK); SELLITTO, M. A. (UNISINOS) 

Abstract: Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) represents a comprehensive and complex set of plans and initiatives involving institutional context (universities and their management board for “greening the campuses”), and educational actors (students, teachers, community stakeholders) in pursuit ofsuitable ways for a sustainable environment in teaching, learning and promoting community values. This paper reviews 26 international selected studies on SHEfrom a pool of 137 identified in academic databases, published between 2000 and 2014. The analysis identifiedfive constructs that pervade such studies: (i) students’ views on sustainability; (ii) students’ literacy; (iii) students’ attitudes; (iv) main pedagogies employed; (vii) universities’ roles. Based on these constructs it was found that: (i) students have a broad and confused view of sustainability, although they associate it with practice and attitudinal change, mainly towards the environment; (ii) they present low level of literacy for sustainability; (iii)their attitudes tend to be contradictory when compared with their beliefs, as they are inclined to remain in a comfort zone of no change; (iv)they are typicallytrained by technical meansor business modules on sustainability, but criticise lectures and tutorials, preferring participatory activities; (v) universities’ rolesare seen aspromotion of sustainability awareness and adoption of environmental management, although these are not clear missions for the managers of these institutions.

Keywords: Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE); environmental literacy; environmental learning; environmental attitudes.

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


An Introduction to the Nature of Wicked Problems - Ecological Challenges as Super Wicked


4th International Workshop

Abstract: In this paper the concept of “wickedness” is presented and discussed, considering the importance of this notion, to correctly deal with problems emerging in ecological systems. The term “wicked problem” was coined by Horst Rittel, who with colleagues perceived the failure of linear approaches to treat design and planning. Failing to recognize a problem as “wicked”, results in the utilization of inappropriate tools to solve challenges in climate change, leading to the use of inadequate methodology and management procedures, fit only to treat “tame problems”. Ecology is considered as a “super-wicked” problem, due to its innumerous uncertainties, interdependencies, and social fragmentation of the stakeholders involved. Ecological systems consist of an integrated and coherent association of dissipative structures, where the whole is not given by the sum o its parts, as known from complexity theory. Ecology consists of a network of open, nonlinear systems, hierarchically structured, highly integrated, adaptative whole of the living and non-living, entangled with social, cultural, and economic phenomena. How we perceive and manage this complex network will strongly influence the future of our planet, and hopefully, correctly orient the study of ecological issues as well as contribute to the effort to implement cleaner production practices. We strongly emphasize that this class of problems –wicked- should be made more fami liar to students.

Keywords: Wicked, super-wicked, ecology, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Analysis of Bordering Counties in Sao Paulo State and Oil Exploration from the Perspective of Integral Sustainability


Abstract: After the discoveries of the region known as "pre-salt" in 2007, the Brazilian government haschanged some of the Brazilian laws with the aim of capturing the maximum of the rents arising from the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in this area. The topic discussed here is crucial for the country because the wealth coming from national oil reserves are finite. The oil and natural gas wealth can make a big difference in countries which use those natural resources wisely, for example, Norway has been seen as a good example of how an efficient and clear oil and natural wealth management can become sustainable over time. In this sense, this article aims to analyze the institutional profile of the bordering counties in Sao Paulo state, one of the areas that possibly receive greater amount of income within Brazil in the coming years. The methodology is based on case study by qualitative analysis of development with a focus on socioeconomic profile and potential of the region studied. As a result, the article points out that each beneficiary city should look its own public needs, calling its inhabitants to conduct educational and health programs that are important to that county in order to make the wealth derived from oil sustainable.

Keywords: Pre-salt´s rules, oil and natural gas government takes, bordering counties in Sao Paulo State

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Analysis of Energy Consumption in the Computer Section of the Group Libra


4th International Workshop

Abstract: With technological advances under way, the issue of pollutant emissions and reduced operating costs are important topics to be highlighted in any organization, highlighting the need to accept a different attitude that we use the resources we have available today. From a holistic view, This fact occurs due to financial, business, government, strategic reasons or simply for environmental awareness. With the increase in mass of this problem, computers are part of a select group of pollutants, rated one of the major consumers of electricity, both in its production, and in your life, use and disposal on their behalf directly or indirectly, the increased emission of greenhouse gases that impact the environmental cond ition. This article is part of an abstraction on energy applied to Green IT, which is the sum of the energy management of the economy, with regard to resources. The main objective of this project is to present a proposal to implement a policy of standardization of equipment(laptop / desktop) added to a conscious use, in order to reduce energy consumption, which sees a reduction in electricity cost(TEPHEN, 2009).

Keywords: Green IT, Efficiency Environmental, Assessment IT, Energy Consumption Estimation.

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Analysis of Externalities in Production Services under Cleaner Production Model Perspective


Abstract: This article aims to describe as the application of the methodology of Cleaner Production (CP) interferes with externalities arising out of a process of production services. Therefore, we attempted to as instruments the exploratory research with qualitative approach, ie, based on bibliographic and documentary research built the categories of analysis and subsequent construction of a model for the assessment of production services. In this case it was used to study the provision of receiving invoices services by a bank. Thus, when dealing with this process from the perspective of PML verified the existence of regressive and progressive positive externalities to adopt an electronic system of invoice payments.

Keywords: Externalities; Clear Production; PmL; service; Production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Analysis of Metal Chip Recycling Methods Contaminated Considering Approaches to Eco-Efficiency and Eco-Effectiveness


Abstract: The Brazilian law requires that the proper disposal of industrial solid waste is mandatory of the generator. However, due to ignorance or lack of professionals in the environmental area on business, this issue becomes one of the main difficulties encountered in order that the manufacturing process generates, in most cases, waste and environmental impacts, which do not receive the due attention. In other hand, this waste can be utilized as an alternative source to increase eco-efficiency and as a larger object to eco-effectiveness, reducing the impacts, increasing the economic and environmental efficiency and contributing to sustainability. The metal-mechanical sector also faces the problem of environmental management, need urgently adapt to the production process, innovative technologies to act in order to achieve sustainability. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the ecoefficiency and eco-effectiveness of the methods used in the cleaning of metallic chips contaminated with cutting fluid metallurgical enterprises. So, a study on the reuse of aluminum chips was done by analyzing the cleaning methods used, the method efficiency, the allocation if cannot be reused and evaluated within the aforementioned characteristics, which is the most eco-efficient and/or eco-effective. This review was performed by criteria identified in the literature, to which you can evaluate methods as eco-efficient and eco-effective. In practice found only eco-efficient methods, and among them, some with eco-effective practices. The results show that the culture of repair, reuse, recycle and intended instead to promote actions such as the remodeling of a production system in a closed cycle where no waste generation is now even more practical and realistic. Nonetheless, it is clear that eco-efficient and eco-effective principles improve the environmental performance of companies, reducing expenses related costs for inputs, raw materials and disposal of waste, and contribute to achieve higher levels of sustainability.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency; Eco-efectiveness; Metalurgy; Metallic Chips

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]


Analysis of National Policy on Climate Change in Confrontation with the State Policy on Climate Change in the State of São Paulo

L. C. Ribas (UNESP), A. L. Brauer (FSP), I. F. Barbosa (UFSCar)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: In this article were analyzed the new National Policy on Climate Change, Law No. 12.187/09, compared with the State Policy on Climate Change of the State of São Paulo State Law No. 13.798/09. To develop the study, the authors correlated the new National Policy on Climate Change, its challenges, new regulatory frameworks, difficulties in defining targets for economic sectors, the estimation of greenhouse gases reduction, such as commitment signed by the government in relation to the current State Policy on Climate Change of the State of São Paulo. They conclude that the São Paulo State is one step ahead of the National Policy on Climate Change, with respect to state law be earlier than federal law, and the provision by the end of the second half of 2010 Pioneer Inventory greenhouse effect. The new milestone in the National Policy on Climate Change constitutes a serious commitment of Brazil, which marked a change of attitude in the country face the discussions on climate, and highlighted the historical role of industrialized countries front the concentration of greenhouse effect, and their responsibilities in securing financial assistance to developing countries in carrying out mitigating actions in order to ensure a balanced environment of diffuse right for the good of all and future generations, and only with concessions for all countries to reach a new climate agreement.

Keywords: National Policy, Climate Change.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Analysis of phenolic compounds, methylxanthins and antioxidant activity of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue: a new potential source of antioxidants

M. A. Vieira; M. Maraschin; C. M. Pagliosa; R. Podestá; R. D. de M. C. Ambonie (UFSC)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) is a plant found in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, countries with the only producer worldwide occurrence, which holds significant social and economic importance. Due to the beneficial effects of erva-mate, its consumption is not confined only to producing countries. Among these tasks is their antioxidant properties, which can contribute to protection against oxidative processes in the human body, among these tasks is their, such as phenolic compounds and tannins the chemical compounds responsible for this effect and stimulant properties attributed to its contents of methylxanthins, such as caffeine. The aims of this research were to evaluate the phenolic, methylxanthinic and tannin composition of erva-mate residue (mate powder), to compare the quali/quantitative phenolic composition of extracts obtained from distinct solvent systems and the antioxidant potential of those extracts. Among the extracts prepared with different solvents, the 80% methanol extract showed the highest total polyphenol content (11.51 g/100g) followed by methanol acid, ethanol acid, 80% ethanol, distilled water and water acid. To compare the results of the TPC and antioxidant activity of the extracts is possible to observe that the higher phenolic content of the extracts resulted in increased antioxidant capacity in DPPH• e ABTS•+ methods. HPLC analysis showed 4,5 dicaffeoylquinic acid as the highest component of the phenolic fraction of mate powder followed by clorogenic acid. The caffeine, teobromina and tannin contents in mate powder were 1.01, 0.10 and 0.29 g/100g respectively. According to the results, this residue can be used as an ingredient in the formulation of functional foods adding value to the waste generated during processing of the erva-mate. Consumption of mate powder would significantly contribute to the antioxidant and stimulants intake, providing high amounts of phenolic acids, tannin and methylxanthins with potentially beneficial biological effects for human health.

Keywords: Ilex paraguariensis, residues, mate powder, phenolic acid, antioxidant capacity, methylxanthins, tannin

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Analysis of the Application of AQUA Certification in Civil Construction in Brazil

M. L. Oliveira, C. B. da Silveira, O. L. G. Quelhas, V. J. Lameira (UFF) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The accelerated development of constructions of buildings in large cities brings degrading impacts on the environment and people's lives. One can consider another point of observation concerns not only the volume of inputs used, but the strong consumption of resources like water, electricity, discomfort in the vicinity of the project, ventilation. Society as agent of change has required the use of these resources better entrepreneurs associated with the economy, reduction and even total replacement forcing streamlined and sustainable innovation. In order to improve the quality of the built environment and minimize its negative impact on the natural environment, various methods for measuring sustainability is being developed by different countries and regions. The study aims to analyze the methodology High Environmental Quality (HEQ) of international review and adapted to Brazil by Vanzolini, its criteria, definition of parameters for the management and monitoring, structure and applicability. It is discussing its convergence with the dimensions of sustainability: social, cultural, environmental and economic criteria and the certification and maintenance of the title. As a result it was possible to verify which requirements are suitable for the methodology of sustainability certification, policies and proposed criteria, management and future studies.

Keywords: Civil Engineering, Sustainable Construction, Green Buildings, Certification HEQ.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Analysis of the Efficiency between Different Adhesives for the Manufacture of Laminated Bamboo Panels


4th International Workshop

Abstract: In each product production process, the incorporation of techniques and methods to reduce waste and environmental issues are generally facilitating the maintenance of a natural more balanced. The clean production is a good alternative for this to occur. Considering the whole production cycle and incorporating environmentally sustainable techniques, the life cycle of industrialized something is optimized, which prevents techniques pipe end. The bamboo plant easy to grow and good workability, has been applied in various purposes such as the production of flooring, furniture, fixtures and even decorative structures in civil construction and cement. This plant to be inserted in the manufacture of laminated bamboo plates avoids, for example, species of wood endangered may be used. When used, this plant is from crops specifically grown for various purposes which may have bamboo and features. Something has researched in countries like Brazil, specifically in Goiás. This work has as main goal to evaluate the efficiency of different adhesives used for making laminated bamboo panels. In forming laminated boards, the process can be summarized in the defoliation of the plant and general cleaning for the removal of unwanted parts, cutting planer four sides for finishing cutting, gluing of parts and finally finishing determine where this material may be applied. This technical-scientific research laboratory tests were performed, where properties of twelve laminated bamboo beams can be compared. The plant was chosen type Dendrocalamus giganteus. This genus is one of the best to perform carpentry work. For each type of adhesive applied to the plates of laminated bamboo, bending tests (reduced size), hardness, density, screw with drawal, shear stress and shear stress at the glue line, a tool constituted conclusive on the workability of the different Products promoters junction between the parts that form the plywood. In some types of adherent reviews have not responded well to tests, bringing the disruption of certain body-of-evidence, but one can prove the efficiency of adhesives used in the manufacture of laminated bamboo. The technology of bamboo utilization for the formation of products useful in our daily lives is something shown by research centers of renowned educational institutions, and this work is the result of a detailed study on the plates made with bamboo. In environments with significant levels of humidity and temperatures can shorten the use of furniture, laminate made with Dendrocalamus giganteus has higher efficiency over other matters falling in the furniture industry.

Keywords: Bamboo laminate, sustainable technologies, clean production, furniture industry, environmentally sustainable materials

Analysis of the Emergy Indicators for the Installation of a Landfill in the Southern Region of Minas Gerais


4th International Workshop

Abstract: More than 50% of brazilian cities plae their urban solid wastes (USW) in places with no previous treatment and adequate control, according to data from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (PNSB/IBGE, 2002), although Law 12.305 (PNRS, 2010) forbids the existence of dumps and encourages more environment-friendly treatment techniques.In this sense, a study was made simulating a landfill implantation that contemplates some cities in south Minas Gerais, which residuals are placed in open dumps, based on studies of the emergy synthesis from São João Landfill in São Paulo. The calculations were made regarding the population average of each city in a period of 12 years. For the annual solid waste generation rate per habitant it was used data from Panorama de Resíduos Sólidos do Brasil (ABRELPE, 2011), that corresponds to 341,275 kgRSD.year/hab of waste. This paper concludes that approximately 5.45E+06 m3 of biogas and 2,72E+06 m3 of CH4 (Methane gas) would be produced.The indicators in emergy point that the landfill system simulated for south Minas Gerais area is not sustainable because it would use 73,98% of the resources coming from the economy. Although it worths highlight that without the implantation of a landfill in this area and the use of inputs from the economy the impacts to the environment would be much more overwhelming.

Keywords: Emergy; landfill; sustainability; environment; Landfill waste.



Analysis of the Influence of Evaporation Temperature and Condensation Pressure, at the Coefficient of Effectiveness of an Absorption Cycle Designed to Produce Ideals Conditions to Store Fishes Using as a Hot Source the Heat from Burned Biomass

P. S. G. Carvalho (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: There are many ways of to obtain low temperatures being absorption cycles one of the possibilities. It operates from hot sources and can generate temperatures near -20°C. This article analyses the influence of evaporation temperature and condensation pressure in the coefficient of  cooperation performance of a absorption cycle that get energy from a process that burns biomass, and the cycle is projected to be able to store fishes in good condition. In the development of this article, the author user the software named Engineering Equation Solver (E.E.S).

Keywords: Refrigeration systems, fish conservation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Analysis of the Residual Generation in a Gemstone Processing Industry: A Case Study with Reuse Proposition


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The gemstone productive chain and jewelry is an important income source and job generator in Brazil, since the country stands out worldwide for the extraction and processing of these materials. However, this activity generates a high volume of waste. In this way, this work aims at analyzing the generation of waste in a gemstone processing industry and at proposing alternatives for its treatment and reuse in other applications, like, for example, in the composition of ceramic clay. This is a quantitative approach research of descriptive and exploratory character, and there were used bibliographies and case study. As a result, it was observed that at the end of beneficiation process just 65% of the parts come into conformity, while 35% of them have some kind of defect. Furthermore, in terms of volume, it appears that only 15% of the gems become final finished product, and the remainder being transformed into various types of solid and liquid residues, infected by cutting o il that need to be treated properly so that they can have an environmentally correct destination and guarantee the sustainability of the activity.

Keywords: Beneficiation process, gems and jewelry, residues.


Analysis on Cleaner Production policy and its results in China

Duan Ning, Bai Yan-ying, Yu Xiu-ling, Yin Jie, Song Dan-na (China National Cleaner Production Center)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Divided into three stages, this paper elaborated the practice courses of Cleaner Production in China in last two decades, analyzing the characteristic of Chinese Cleaner Production policy in the different historical periods. It also analyzed the results of Cleaner Production policy in China according to the investigation and study data of Cleaner Production audit of national key enterprises from 2004 to 2007. The result indicated that the advancement pattern of the voluntary Cleaner Production audit and compulsory Cleaner Production audit effectively promoted the advancement of Cleaner Production in Chinese industry. The consciousness on Cleaner Production of the government, the enterprise and the public have had essential enhancement. The quantity of enterprises which implement Cleaner Production audit has been increasing. The Cleaner Production technical advisory services system was preliminary established. It is obvious to see the energy saving and emission reduction realized by Cleaner Production.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, policy, results, analysis

[Abstract] [Organizational Report] [Presentation]

Analysis on the Status for Cleaner Production in China


Abstract: Cleaner production (CP), especially in the field of industry, is a key factor in achieving sustainable development in China. Chinese government made great efforts on implementing the strategy of sustainable development. Cleaner production has made remarkable achievements, and gained recognition world widely. Cleaner productionhas become a core policy of pollution prevention in China, while its meaning and connotation are continuously developing. After being implemented for more than 20 years in China, great progresses have been made in CP policies, capacity building and technical support system. In this study, unique set of practices of CP in China, including were analyzed, to summarize the main experience of CP implementing for other developing countries.

Keywords: Cleaner production, Pollution prevention,Cleaner production policy

[Abstract] [Paper]


Analytical Ability and Participation for Sustainable Environmental Projects


Abstract: The article discusses the changing in research on the space of cities considering some new paradigms introduced by the Information Technology (IT) seeking for a cleaner, sustainable and smarter production. It also discusses the current conditions of the use of IT, confronting new opportunities for analysis and interactivity applied inenvironmental management. Finally, it tries to deduct an evolution of strategies aiming the sustainabilityoriented production, with the spreading of those resources through transdisciplinarity

Keywords: Architecture, urban design, environmental management, sustainability and Information Technology

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Analyzing Important Corporate Social Responsibility Activities with help of Analytical Hierarchy Process

GOVINDAN, K. (University of South Denmark-Denmark); MATHIYAZHAGAN, K. (National Institute of Technology-India)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept which industries use to improve their societal well -being through discretionary business practices and corporate resource contributions. It is a high profile notion perceived as deliberate by the production world in addition to being a well-known concept in academia and with its practionners. CSR now gets increasing attention in global sourcing and supply chains. Indian SMEs have started adopting CSR activities recently to ensure their social responsibilities. But, Indian SMEs struggle to identify major CSR acts to improve their social standing. Because of this, this study’s objective was fixed as identification of important CSR activities and categories for improving its performance aided by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This study was undertaken in 47 SMEs in Tamilnadu, South India. The results reveal employee satisfaction to be the most important CSR category followed by social activity rewards, society view and combined social activities to improve CSR performance.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; analytical hierarchy process.


Application of Cleaner Production in a Process of Sockets Lighting Package, a Case Study


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Cleaner Production brings a differentiated approach on waste management, since it allows to the company to have a better knowledge of its manufacturing process; constantly monitoring the process, the generated waste becomes an opportunity for improvement. The aim of this study was to reuse and to optimize the use of packaging in a business outsourcer mounting sockets lamps. Since the packaging used in the receipt of parts for assembly and shipment of finished parts were large and contains a few pieces, it could be better used. It was carrying out a study to increase the capacity and reuse of the pack. The results were satisfactory, since it has increased the capacity for packaging receiving socket housing parts from 65% to 78% and the socket cover from 48% to 86.4%. The package mounted socket doubled its storage capacity from 50 to 100 pieces. The environmental benefit was the cutback of consumption of 16,075 units of plastic packaging. The economic benefits were R$ 4.191,25 per year, without investments.It was proved the efficiency of cleaner production even in small and simple projects.

Keywords: Packing, sockets, cleaner production


Application of Cleaner Production tool in Plastic Recycling Process

F. P. Faria; E. B. A. V. Pacheco (UFRJ)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This work shows suggestions for the accomplishment of the plastic recycling process in an environmentally friendly way, based in the Cleaner Production tool. Besides reduction of plastic consumption or reuse of packing, it is necessary to invest in recycling technology and the selective garbage separation for guaranteeing the minimization of sending waste to landfills. The recyclers, which receive as raw material the plastic waste, carry out the recycling in stages that might guarantee the minimum quality standards for production of new objects. As a tool of environment management, Cleaner Production can be used by companies to reduction of consumption of energy and water, as well as minimization in generation of waste. The stage of laundering, for example, is the one that involves greater water consumption that needs to be saved, treated and reused. The extrusion of the plastic material for molding in new products generates solid residues that also need to be recycled. Although the recycling process treats of garbage generally dirty and contaminated, it shall be carried out with an environmentally correct process.

Keywords: Recycling, plastic, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Application of electrochemical degradation of wastewater composed of mixtures of phenol - formaldehyde

A. L. T. Fornazari (USP - São Carlos-SP); G. R. P. Malpass (UFABC); D. W. Miwa; A. J. Motheo (USP - São Carlos-SP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Environmental problems caused by industrial processes are of great concern to society due to the possible introduction of toxic waste from products generated by the industry. Thus, researchers increasingly study new techniques to reduce or eliminate the toxicity of industrial effluents, always respecting the laws and regulations aimed at environmental protection. Electrochemical degradation is a promising alternative for the treatment of wastewater that contains organic compounds. In this work a dimensionally stable anode (DSA®) of nominal composition Ti/Ru0,3Ti0,7O2 was used to study the degradation of solutions containing a mixture of phenol and formaldehyde. The oxides electrodes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The galvanostatic degradation of mixtures of phenol – formaldehyde were monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Total Organic Carbon Analysis (TOC). The effect of current density (10, 20, 40 and 50 mA cm-2), pH (3, 5, 7, 9 and 12) and supporting electrolytes (NaCl, NaNO3 and Na2SO4) was investigated. Energy consumption during electrolysis is also presented. The electro degradation of mixtures of phenol – formaldehyde proceeds via two different mechanism: active and non-active. The non active mechanism results in the complete combustion of organics to carbon dioxide. The active mechanism results in a selective oxidation, via degradation products. The results demonstrate that the electrochemical removal of organics is pH- dependent. In the most an effective current density (40 mA cm-2) 60% of TOC is removed.

Keywords: Dimensionally stable anodes, phenol, formaldehyde

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Application of Electrochemical Oxidation in the Treatment of Landfill Leachate and Evaluation of Toxicity in Allium cepa

KLAUCK, C. R. (Feevale University); BENVENUTI, T. (UFRGS); SILVA, L. B.; RODRIGUES, M. A. S. (Feevale University)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: The disposal of waste in landfills is a practice in creasingly common in big cities, and it generates large volumes of leachate as a product of waste decomposition and rainwater percolation. This liquid is highly toxic and must be treated before its release in the environment. Due the problems presented by conventional systems, there is a growing need for procedures that offer higher treatment efficiency or can be integrated by conventional processes. In this regard, clean technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), are considered an excellent alternative for the removal of color and organic matter, as well as to increase the biodegradability of leachate. The aim of this study was both to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced oxidation process of electrochemical oxidation in leachate treatment and to assess the toxicity of the sample before and after treatment. The experiments were performed with 150L sample of leachate and used an electrochemical reactor consisting of electrodes DSA® (Ti/70Ti/30 RuO2 De Nora ®), which were arranged parallel in batch regime. A current density of 10,04 mA.cm-2 was applied for a period of 40h and 60h. The results indicate excellent removals of COD, BOD5, ammonia and phosphorus within the first 40 hours of treatment. However, the evaluation showed the toxicity remained unaltered, which points to the importance of this type of study as a complement to traditional analyzes. The advanced oxidation processes are considered a clean technology, mainly for neither requiring the addition of chemicals nor generating sludge treatment. Still, assessment of toxicity of the treated effluent is necessary, considering the possible generation of toxic byproducts.

Keywords: Leachate, Electrochemical Oxidation, Toxicity, Allium cepa.


Application of the Concept of Industrial Ecology to the Integrated Management System: Advantages and associated environmental improvements

J. Gameiro; M. L. P. Silva (Siemens)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The need for making human systems part of the natural ecosystems and similar to natural environment is clearly stated. This approach, which is the basis of Industrial Ecology, aims to enhance industrial symbiosis that might contribute to mitigate process or material loss. However, it is not very common to amend Industrial Ecology principles to management systems and furthermore, to Integrated Management Systems. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the sustainability impact of integrating the Industrial Ecology approach to the existing Integrated Management System at an electro electronic company in Brazil. The defined methodology followed the most important premises of Industrial Ecology aligned to the Integrated Management Systems requirements in the electro electronic sector. The case study was based on a worldwide company that presented all the segments within the sector, that is, microelectronics, surface mounting technology, printed circuit board, mounting and logistics. Moreover, the study considered material flow and performance analysis in order to define potential industrial metabolism and sustainability degrees, besides implementing an Industrial Ecology computer program that enabled better information communication and control. It was possible to conclude that the Industrial Ecology concept tools used in the company did benefit its industrial sustainability because it allowed more efficient processes through the use of metrics, involved most of the employees and operations, favored better process standardization, enhanced the systemic approach making the decision process easier once it was based on real time facts. It was observed that it also contributed to the adoption of methods, systems and procedures that enabled deep strategic change and improved cultural change, which is one of the essential aspects of sound sustainable development. Finally, it is suggested that Industrial Ecology be used as a fruitful metaphor for facilitating the improvement of sustainability. The tools developed in this study might be easily applied to any enterprise, independently of its size, level or production processes.

Keywords: Sustainability, industrial ecology, industrial metabolism, balanced scorecard, key performance indicators

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Application of the Methodology of Cleaner Production in the pré-Printing and Printing Phase in the Graphical Industry in the State of the Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

F. P. Canesin; M. B. P. dos Santos (UFF)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The main purpose of this essay is describe the implementation of Cleaner production method in a Press Enterprise named Gráfica A, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil, in order to improve its productive process. The Cleaner Production program was put into practice in a six month period, consisting in phases and steps which were established by UNEP. For this study the production of two printed products was considered: individuals sheets with an annual production of 3,9 million and books, with 232 pages, with an annual production of 12600 units. Environmental diagnosis of the process showed several opportunities in the pre-printing and printing phases of Gráfica A in water and energy consumption, solid waste generation, effluents and emissions. Practice of the method of Cleaner Production revealed that implementing certain changes, there should be a reduction of 37% in effluent generation; 45% in water consumption and 45% in plate solution reagent use. The obstacles found within this study were based on lack of budgetary forecast implementation for these changes; an organizational culture not fully directed toward the efficient use of the resources and the difficulty in implantation of projects that generate expenditure increase.

Keywords: Cleaner production, press enterprise, waste

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Application of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving as a Cleaner Production Method for Solar Heating Optimization Proposals


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The global growing concern regarding minimizing negative environmental impacts of industrial and commercial products, processes and services has generated an increasing need for detailed studies related to clean technologies and renewable energy sources. In this context, this study applied the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) as method to identify and support to develop cleaner production opportunities, towards a contribution to the development of solar heating systems more efficient and innovative. Then, we conducted a case study on a solar heating systems manufacturing company, using TRIZ fundamental concepts and contradiction matrix as data collection and analysis technique. Results show the subsequent formulation of inventive solution proposals, based on the obtained information, to minimize harmful functions found in the technical system investigated. We concluded that TRIZ has potential contribution in the creative process for new solar heating systems.

Keywords: Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Fundamental concepts, Contradiction matrix, cleaner production, solar heaters

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Application of the Principles of Cleaner Production in a Galvanizing Company


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Sustainability is a recurring theme and source of discussions in various fields, whether government, business and academic institutions. The need to reduce emissions of pollutants has become a constant concern, and in the racing companies, the focal point lies in manufactured goods and the generation of emissions to the environment resulting from their production processes. One of the concepts that is in evidence is called Cleaner Production (CP), which refers to a new way to see the productive operations, whose aim is to generate less environmental impacts during the production process, ie before the "end-of-pipe". In this context, this article aims to analyze the results obtained through interventions in the production process in an electroplating company. The research fits as an exploratory case study and the results show substantial gains occurred surveyed using the new method, both environmental and economic order, which represents an important opportunity for application in other companies.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental Management, Cleaner Production, Plating

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Applying of Ecological Cost Accounting in a Dye Discoloring Process

J. M. Rosa (UNINOVE/SENAI/UNICAMP), M. A. Pereira, F. H. Pereira, E. A. Baptista, F. A. Calarge, J. C. C. Santana (UNINOVE), E. B. Tambourgi (UNICAMP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This work sought to apply the Accounting of Complete Ecological Costs (ACEC) methodology in a textile segment company through the reutilization of colored wastewater, after treatment by advanced oxidation processes (POA) in reactors using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a catalysis activated by ultraviolet light (UV). Facing the worries with the sustainable development and the difficulty in measuring environmental costs through the traditional accounting method, the proposed methodology tries to integrate costs, either internal or external ones, into a single dimension. At reducing the environmental impacts, the company shows a proactive position regarding the sustainability, becoming sustainable itself. The study presented the financial and ecological economy obtained, thus showing this process is efficient and may be used by companies in the textile sector for reutilizing water, reducing the financial and ecological costs, as well as the negative externalities.

Keywords: Advanced oxidation process, UV/H2O2, ecologic cost accounting, dye discoloring, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Are Sustainability Management Systems (SMS) really promising?

J. Esquer-Peralta; L. Velazquez; N. Munguia (University of Sonora - Mexico)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The concepts of Sustainable Development (SD) and Management Systems (MS) are finding increasing acceptance in a variety of fields, including academy, politics, and non-governmental organizations. These concepts are also being used by the general population. This paper describes the perception of different experts by discussing about the usefulness of Sustainability Management Systems (SMS) as holistic systems which might integrate environmental, social, and economic elements. Fourteen interviews have been conducted to several experts around the world. Some of them are professional persons in Sustainability issues in general, and some of them in environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues in particular. The results have shown that, although there is a continuous debate on the sustainability approach, several core elements can be addressed through Sustainability Management Systems (SMS).

Keywords: Sustainability Management System (SMS), performance-based approach, sustainable development

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Assessing the Application of Cleaner Production Techniques in a Dairy in Southern Bahia


Abstract: The dairy products are of great importance for southern Bahia, because they contribute to the development and regional economic diversification, but it is necessary to be aware of the possible environmental impacts arising from its activities. Given this, the adoption of preventive practices such as Cleaner Production (CP) can contribute the improvement of production processes and provide economic gains, environmental protection and better work environment. Thus, this study aimed to identify techniques and opportunities for cleaner production (CP) in a dairy ofthe region. For this, we carried out a literature review, technical visits and questionnaires, obtaining information about characterization, CP and Environmental Management, environmental aspects and impacts. The study indicated that the dairy has a high potential polluter, mainly due to the lack of structured environmental programs. However, it was already adopting some environmental practices, such as pluvial water reuse, treatment stations and standard techniques adoption. Furthermore, the study has given the opportunity to find Cleaner production actions that could improve production conditions and organization for long and short lines,associated withthe interest of the company in knowing others actions and methods that might contribute to minimizing its impact and propitiate economic gains. Thus, the opportunities presented themselves for CP adequate to company for its level.

Keywords: Sustainability, environmental impacts, eco-efficiency

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Assessment and Implementation of a Cleaner Production Opportunity Furniture Industry in a Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

C. H. R. Massote (e2 Environmental Consulting), A. M. M. Santi (UFOP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Based on the application of concepts and methodology of Cleaner Production - CP in an industry of the furniture sector - Mod Line Soluções Corporativas Ltda -, installed in the municipality of Contagem, Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, as a management tool available for achieving eco-efficiency and obtain environmental benefits associated with economic gains, promoted himself in two productive sectors of the company an audit of generation of waste and effluent, using tools for evaluating material flows and water, to support the identification, assessment and deployment of nine preventive opportunities for CP, which resulted in minimizing waste and industrial effluents generation, and consequently, decreasing the inflow of raw materials, inputs and water. The deployment of nine opportunities for CP provided for undertaking an annual savings of about U.S. $ 103,000.00, obtained by minimizing of the generation of solid waste and wastewater emissions, in amounts equivalent to 374,000.00 kg and 200,000.00 L, respectively, added to reduce the annual consumption of 381,000.00 kg of raw materials and 200,000.00 L of water, ie, the minimization of process losses. This article will be a description and assessment of only one of the opportunities for CP, of which nine were implanted, through the adoption of technological innovations in the production process involved, resulted in considerable environmental and economic benefits.

Keywords: Cleaner Production (CP). Optimization production processes. Environmental management. Industry furniture. Brazil (Minas Gerais).

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Assessment of Demand and Potential Associated with Solid Waste Management in Emerging Cities: The Case of the City of Rio das Ostras, RJ


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The rapid urban and population growth observed in some Brazilian cities in recent years, associated with the troubling framework of management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the country has as a consequence environmental problems that tend to gain scale in the future. Note that there is a technology and management lag relative to some efficient models adopted in developed countries that use waste as a feedstock in power generation and maintains high standards of environmental control. Therefore this paper addresses, holistically, the problems of urban waste management, as well as the main routes that can be taken to advance the department in accordance with the guidelines of the National Solid Waste. For a closer view of reality, a case study was conducted in the city of Rio das Ostras, RJ, where was diagnosed a scenario that, despite being above the national average, is still far of desirable standards characterized by difficulties in meet the growing demand, large wastage of materials and lack of adequate treatment for most waste. Based on collected data in the field and in the literature, were made projections of future scenarios considering population growth. It was estimated that if nothing is done, the city will need to triple its garbage disposal capacity in less than 10 years. On the other hand, from some actions and investments, is possible to reverse this framework using the economic and energy potentials associated with the management of MSW generating countless benefits to the city. Actions such as separating waste for recycling, installing biodecom position centrals and framing the landfill as CDM were considered most advantageous to be implemented in the short term considering the factors of technical, economic and environmental involved. Yet, not rule out the use of heat treatment for some types of materials, and eventually even to the RSU. However, it was concluded that a new approach of municipal administrations, especially those growing cities, it is possible to manage the waste more efficiently resulting economic advantages and also protecting the environment.

Keywords: Waste management, MSW, urban growth, environment, waste to energy


Assessment of Energy, Global, and CO2 Emission Efficiencies of Sand Production from Construction and Demolition Materials


Abstract: At the same time in which the market of building construction generates gross domestic product (GDP) and collaborates with social-economical growth, it generates large load on environment due to materials and energy use as well as the waste generated. Among others, the building construction waste (BCW) deserves special attention because it corresponds to about 50% of total solid waste generated in the Earth. Specifically for the São Paulo city, Brazil, the BCW corresponds to about 66% in mass of total solid waste generated within the city, which demands high economic and energetic cost for its transport to landfills. In an attempt to overcome the resources wasteful, the use of BCW as raw material in producing sand for building construction could be considered as a good alternative, because usually sand corresponds up to 50% of total recycled BCW in mass. On the other hand, recycling BCW to produce sand also demands resources as materials, energy and labor to transport the BCW until recycling plant and in all other related processes as separation, size reduction, classification, and sand transport until final user. This work aims to assess the energetic-environmental performance of BCW recycling process in producing sand for building construction in São Paulo city. For this, energy analysis, emergy accounting (with an “m”), and global warming potential (GWP) are the methodologies used. Results indicate that energy efficiency (0.12 MJ/kg sand), global efficiency (3.09E10 seJ/kg sand) and the GWP (0.016 kgCO2-eq./kg sand) of recycled sand from BCW have better performance when compared to referenced values of sand produced traditionally from natural extraction. It is recognized the need of higher amount and diversity of referenced values for comparison, but these preliminary results indicate that recycling sand from BCW suggests, a priori, a good alternative in comparison with sand obtained from natural extraction.

Keywords: Embodied energy, Emergy accounting, Global warming, Recycled sand.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Assessment of Soil Fertility and the Elements Nickel, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium in Soil Cultivated with Coffee for Ten Years using Limestone Compared to the Use of Agrosilício® and these Two to Soil Under Natural Vegetation


Abstract: Before Christ, the application of residues in agriculture was already a common practice. steel slag can be used for acidity correction. However, the soil contamination is a problem. The objective of this study was to analyze an area where Agrosilício® (steel slag) was applied comparing to two areas (one with no correction and another one with limestone application). The soil samplings weredonein native forest areas and coffee plantations, one area managed only withlimestone application and another with Agrosilício®, both with ten years of application of the products. The sampling depths were 0-5; 5-10; 10-15; 15-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-60; 60-80 and under 80 centimeters, in two repetitions. It was analyzed routine fertility and the elements: boron, chromium, nickel and cadmium. Limestone and Agrosilício®showed similar results for the analyzed features. Keywords:heavy metals, native forest, silicon, steel slag, soil amendments

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Assessment of the Environmental Sustainability of a Coffee Farm

Y. Ogura; B. F. Giannetti; C. M. V. B. Almeida; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The Cerrado, a savannah region, is Brazil’s second largest ecosystem after the Amazon rainforest and is also threatened with imminent destruction. A graphical tool was employed to assess the environmental performance of the production of coffee in a traditional farm in Cerrado region, Brazil. The graphical tool  allies the properties of the equilateral triangle and the emergy concepts. The present study presents the environmental assessment performed in the farm located in Coromandel, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  Results indicate that Brazilian green coffee production is adequated to  environment index evaluated by other academic studies, about agriculture. They also allow to analyze production’s data relative to environment indicators, in which can be observed an optimized production range  with fine environment performance.

Keywords: Coffee production, environmental account, emergy, ternary diagram

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Assessment of the Performance of Cajanus cajan in the Phytoextraction and Translocation of Lead


Abstract: Heavy metals are high molecular weight elements that, in high concentrations, put in risk all biodiversity. Lead (Pb) is one of the most soil contaminant heavy metals and one of the biggest environmental problems of the modern world. Hence, the development of methods and techniques are required for controlling the harmful effects resulting from contamination, especially in the soil. The technique that stands out most is the phytoremediation, which aims to decontaminate the soil and water through the use of plants. Cajanuscajan, also known as pigeon pea, is an annual or semi-perennial shrub legume with several uses, among them, as improving plant soil, due to its phytoremediation capacity, mainly through phytoextraction technique, since its potential in removing metals from soil by absorption and accumulation in roots and aerial part. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Cajanuscajan in phytoextraction and translocation of lead. We selected 50 Cajanuscajan seeds and put to germinate in a container containing chemically analyzed soil. The samples were dried in an oven and stored in identified paper bags. The dry matter production of root, aerial part and whole plant (root + aerial part) were determined using analytical scale. In laboratory the levels of lead in roots and aerial part were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experimental design was completely randomized and the results were submitted to analysis of variance, applying the Scott-Knott test at 5% significance level. Comparing the averages of fresh and dry weight of Cajanuscajan, in general, it was observed that they decreased, both aerial part and root, as increased the lead contents the samples were exposed to. The concentration of Pb in these compartments increased with increasing concentration of the solution added to the soil. Phytotoxicity symptoms were observed in some samples, such as yellowing and leaf drop. There was also a reduction in the growth of plants exposed to 1000 µmol L-1 of lead acetate in comparison with the other samples and the amount of Pb present in the roots was much higher than that amounttranslocated to the aerial part. As the roots showed a higher amount of lead, it is recommended that in the case of the process being used at larger scales, they must be incinerated or disposed of in appropriate trenches in landfills. The specie Cajanus cajan showed good efficiency in lead phytoextraction, proving its considerable importance and practical applicability in the recovery of areas contaminated by that element.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, pigeon pea, heavy metals, contaminated sites, bioremediation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Assessment of the Presence of Ecodesign Principles in a Chemical Company

M. Borchardt; M. A. Sellitto; G. M. Pereira (UNISINOS); M. H. Wendt (Artecola Indústrias Químicas)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents a case study about ecodesign constructs assessment based on a multicriterial decision support method, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The assessment took place in a chemical firm. The methodology was developed considering that the application in other organizations, belonging to other industries, is available. Firstly, a theoretical framework about ecodesign concepts and practices was prepared. Then, a focus group with multidisciplinary team of experts in eco-conception identified seven ecodesign constructs describing the top term ecodesign. The constructs are: materials, product components, product and process characteristics, use of energy, product distribution and stocks, packing and waste. Each construct was deployed in items. Using the AHP, the ecodesign constructs were weighted by the company respondents and it was possible identified the relative importance of each construct.
The constructs with higher degree of importance were product and process characteristics and waste. At the end, a questionnaire was answered by the company team in order to check the performance of each item. Compiling the items performance, we can assess the construct performance. By comparing the assessed performance with the relative importance of each ecodesign constructs, it was possible to measure the gaps between importance and performance.

Keywords: Ecodesign, design for environment, analytic hierarchy process

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Assessment of the Viability of Production of Ceramic Tiles from Waste Generated in the Casting Process Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxide of Aluminum Alloy


Abstract: The casting process is the production of metal parts when a metal or molten metal alloy is placed on a hollow mold made of sand. During fabrication of sand molds is generated as a byproduct dust exhaust. Disposal of this waste has several environmental damage as a modification of the natural landscape and occupation of large areas with landfilling, beyond this material is potentially toxic if disposed in uncontrolled areas. In order to use this waste, this work proposes the use of this waste for the production and characterization of coatings, such as protection film on an aluminum alloy surface plasma electrolytic oxide (PEO). The PEO is a process where the atmospheric plasma and conventional electrolysis are combined for the change of metal surfaces in ceramic oxides. In this work, the coatings were obtained in aluminum alloys by means of plasma electrolytic, electrolyte solution prepared using an exhaust dust and distilled water in concentrations of 5g / L and 20g / L. The electrolytic plasma was obtained by applying a potential difference of 650V, 300Hz frequency, duty cycle of + 60% to -20% and utilizing deposition time of 600s and 1200s. Were asked the exhaust powder analysis and film analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The composition of the coatings showed the presence of O, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg, Na, C, where all concentrations increased with longer deposition. This study also showed that the coatings obtained from concentration of 20g / L and 1200s deposition produce uneven coatings and low adhesion, the condition being discharged for further studies.

Keywords: Casting residue, ceramic coating, plasma electrolytic oxide, aluminum

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Backcasting and Sustainability: A Bibliometric Contribution


Abstract: Given the global needs for sustainable movement aligned to the concept of the Triple-Bottom-Line of Elkinton (1998) emerges the need for strategic planning and real engagement of stakeholders groups regarding the turning actions towards visions of the future, this is the approach known as backcasting. From these references, this paper aims to give an overview of the academic literature on backcasting for sustainability, describing trends, authors and the main topics discussed. The methodological approach used was a literature review with bibliometric analysis techniques and content analysis. Searches were conducted in the scientific database ISI Web of Knowledge. The initial sample for analysis consisted of 101 published articles between 1985 and 2014, expanded to the references cited in these articles. The sample was analyzed with respect to the evolution of publications, citations, identification of key journals, authors and works. To content analysis and main themes, proceeded to a selection based on the categorization promoted by the database and reading the abstracts, resulting in a total of 31 articles. The results indicate a significant increase of published papers and citations over the period. Models of backcasting studies identified in the literature converge: commitment and involvement of stakeholders; use of interactive modeling tools, workshops, questionnaires, interviews, etc. as well as efforts to monitor and stimulate the dissemination of social learning. Most studies focus on countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden

Keywords: Backcasting, Sustenability, Framework, Stakeholders. Bibliometric study

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Barriers to the Adoption of Green Buildings on Higher Education Institutions


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are responsible for significant environmental impacts, both for the massive amount of activities they develop every day, and for their resemblance with "small cities". In this context, HEIs have been suggested to search for a better environmental adequation, and one of the strategies for that to succeed is the adoption of green buildings. However, some researchs, especially the international ones, have been pointing that this kind of initiative usually faces several barriers, on organizational and financial basis, among others. These barriers may be occurring as well in Higher Education Institutions, more specifically in Engineering Colleges which have been receiving a special attention of the Brazilian government and organizations that provide research incentive to raise the quality and amount of graduate engineers in Brazil. In that context, the objective of this article is, therefore, to identify which are the most important barriers to the implementation of more environmentally sustainable buildings in Higher Education Institutions, and, based on research in the available literature, propose suggestions to eliminate these obstacles.

Keywords: Green Buildings, Engineering College, Environmental Management, Higher Education

Barriers to the Implementation of Cleaner Production as Ecoefficiency Practice in Small and Medium Enterprises in the State of Rio de Janeiro

M. T. B. Rossi (UFF); M. M. L. Barata (IOC/Fiocruz-RJ)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify how small and medium business in the state of Rio de Janeiro, can overcome the implementation barriers of cleaner production and as a consequence become more eco-efficient. In that context, the methodology used was the research and exploration of the available biography in order to identify the main known barriers for the implementation of cleaner production in the world and in Brazil, and its application and similarities to small enterprises located in Rio de Janeiro. As a result, a proposal for a strategic plan was developed including enabling actions for the adoption of cleaner production directed to the specific cases found in the small and medium companies of the Rio de Janeiro State.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Barriers, Eco-efficiency, Strategy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Benefits of Optimization Process in Water Treatment Plants - Case Study SANASA Campinas


4th International Workshop

Abstract: In many water drinking treatment plants, the chemical applications are made with manualsequipment. These dosing controls are very difficult and depend of the experience of the operators. The water drinkingtreatment depends on several factors such as pH, turbidity, color and origin of the sample to be treated. These and other factors can determine the best chemical to be used and the best pH of coagulation and flocculation. Generally the treatment in higher values of pH may lead to an increased consumption of coagulants with a consequent increase in the sludge production. The use of aluminum salts and iron is common in water treatment plants. These products have capacities of treatment in different ranges of pH and the correct choice will influence the kinetics of the reaction s involved with consequent production of a higher or lower amount of sludge. Another important factor is the high cost that a wrong choice will lead to the process, because, in addition to direct consumption of coagulant and increased sludge generation, there may be a higher consumption of other products indirectly. This work show the results of accurate control and the choice of the best product for water drinking treatment with environmental and financial benefits which provided a reduction of over 40% in the consumption of chemicals including the coagulant and lime, in addition to the almost total reduction of the use of powdered activated carbon. As a indirect consequence of optimization process, there was a large reduction in the generation of sludge that has a high cost for your treatment and disposal.

Keywords: Dewatering, clean production, reduction of waste, water treatment, sludge treatment


Best Management Practices and Environmental Management in Aquaculture – Indicators for Monitoring in Multiple Scales


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The promotion of sustainable aquaculture depends on the documented adoption of Best Management Practices (BMPs), associated with the monitoring of environmental health, of the availability of natural resources (especially uncontaminated waters and sediments), and of the efficient use of inputs. In order to ensure a traceable and organized procedure to help fish farmers to comply with these requisites, a set of environmental performance indicators has been integrated into an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, under the coordination of the Brazilian Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA), through a research project carried out in the Furnas reservoir (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). This choice of location aims at supporting a national policy, dedicated to implement ‘Aquaculture Parks’ in the large reservoirs associated with hydroelectric facilities in the country. These ‘Parks’ have been delimitated in selected areas, following careful diagnostics of hydrodynamics, carrying capacity evaluations, multiple water uses and conflicting interests, to receive permits to install cages for fish production. One provision of said policy charges MPA to offer producers with monitoring programs related with environmental impact and social benefit assessments of these aquaculture ventures. A challenge for such monitoring programs is to encompass the multiple scales represented by (i) the individual aquaculture ventures (be these small or large numbers of fish cages for each fish farmer), (ii) the collective association of producers in an ‘aquaculture park’, and (iii) the community at large eventually affected by these businesses. Furthermore, the monitoring procedure should emphasize the ability to promote and recommend adoption of BMPs, while facilitating the record keeping of environmental quality and resource carrying capacity information. The primary component of this record keeping, environmental management and resource monitoring procedure has been formulated as a ‘Weighted Impact Assessment System for Best Management Practices in Aquaculture’ (APOIA-Aquaculture), comprised of 68 indicators integrated in a multi-attribute platform to assess the ‘Spatial organization’ of the enterprises (in a set of 22 indicators), the analytical conditions of ‘Water quality’ (14 indicators), and ‘Quality of the sediments’ (09 indicators), and the conditions regarding ‘Management, nutrition and safety’ (23 indicators). A series of case studies has been carried out at the Furnas reservoir, in order to check the flexibility of the impact assessment system towards the different enterprise typologies, and its applicability as an environmental management tool for producers. Interestingly, a subset of ‘sediment quality indicators’ is frequently showing sensitivity as a record of mismanagement, especially those linked with inadequate feeding management. For instance, organic matter and phosphate contents increased markedly from sediments sampled ~10m upstream (considering the local current flows) as compared to just under the cages. The main reasons for these changes seemed to be the inadequate identification of cages, with consequent poor control on feeding practices and impossible bookkeeping. Such indicator interactions, and related management tradeoffs and improved practice recommendations, are stressed in ‘Environmental Management Reports’ offered to producers’ decision making. Further development of the methodology is now focusing the formulation of a set of ‘Natural resources and environmental assets sharing’ indicators, to address the joint organization of the upcoming ‘aquaculture parks’, in compliance with the multiple uses intended to these territories around major water bodies.

Keywords: Aquaculture, impact assessment, environmental management, water quality, Best Production Practices

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on Product Life Cycle Management, Product Development Process and Sustainability and their Interfaces

A. Varandas Junior (USP), P. A. C. Miguel (UFSC), M. M. de Carvalho (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a review, classification, codification, and analysis of the literature of the concepts Product Life Cycle Management (PLM), New Product Development (NPD), Sustainability and their interfaces. It seeks to map the literature on those concepts by bibliometric analysis. The analysis is supported by software (UCINET and SITKIS) to present the relations among the concepts, networks of citations and references, and related topics. Subsequently, the paper identifies a gap in the literature on perspectives for future research. ISI Web of Knowledge database is accessed as well as a Brazilian portal which is linked to various databases (CAPES). The analysis considers publications between 2006 and 2010, classifying according to various criteria. When classifying the papers, difficulties were encountered in identifying the research methods, since there was limited information on many articles. The results show that the papers are published in a dispersed way in different journals. The majority of them adopt case study as a methodological research approach as well as theoretical-based conceptual papers. Concerning the nature of the data, qualitative approach is more used than the quantitative one. Most papers are descriptive studies. One of the reasons might be due to the fact that these concepts are not well consolidated in the literature. The examined publications incorporated the concept of sustainability and PLM in the NPD process and are more extensively applied in industries, supply chain and software development. Papers usually emphasises the improvement NPD, performance assessment, and the integration of information from different areas. Finally, the article concludes that the literature converges to an integration of the concepts of sustainability and PLM, within the current practices of the NPD. There is a trend increased towards environmental issues demanded by society and the need of organizations to employ strategies that consider product end of life (remanufacturing, recycling and reuse).

Keywords: Product development process (PDP). Product life cycle management (PLM). Sustainability.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]

Biodiversity Loss due to Climatic Impact of Land Use in LCA: a Case Study in Regionalization of Carbon Transfer Data in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

M. V. Lange, C. M. L. Ugaya (UTFPR)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Land use leads to different impacts on nature, so that the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of land use should include at least the impacts on biodiversity, biotic production and regulatory functions in the natural environment. This study focuses on the climatic effect of land use, determined by the carbon transfers between vegetation/soil and atmosphere, considering reabsorption by the earth's surface, aiming to generate usable data for assessing the loss of biodiversity. There are current methods for LCA use, which provide data for the main world biogeographic regions. But considering that carbon transfers are very specific for each microregion of the globe and even the existence of a more detailed division of biomes in each country – each of them with significant differences in species, ecological dynamics, ecological interactions and environmental conditions – a regionalization of the data for the Brazilian biomes is proposed, considering the main land uses. As an example and for validation of the data regionalization process, the study is focused on obtaining data of carbon transfers in the Atlantic Forest Biome. Therefore, initially, data on carbon stocks in soil and vegetation, for each of the strata of the Atlantic Forest Biome, were collected and tabulated. Then, calculation procedures were performed, considering not only the amount transferred, but also the permanence of carbon in the atmosphere, to finally determine values for the carbon transfer to the air due to implantation of pastures in the different strata, expressed as fossil-combustion-equivalent tons of carbon. The case study allowed the conclusion that the regional data are quite different from the generic data previously found for rainforests. Furthermore, differences were found between the values of carbon transfer to the various strata that make up the same biome - the Atlantic Forest. Thus is reinforced the need to regionalize the data on carbon transfer in order to make them more realistic and reliable.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Carbon Transfers due to Land Use. Biodiversity Loss

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Biogas Production from Manure of the Fish Farming


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper evaluated the potential of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of manure of the fish farming, species Tilapia Gift (Oreochromis niloticus). This study is part of a pilot project conducted in order to evaluate feasibility to biogas production from manure of the fish farming in zone of Grande Dourados-MS, conducted by Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD). For construction of the biodigester and gasometer model used in this work was two plastic gallon with capacity of 50 liters and white PVC pipe. The results of this study indicate a potential of 917 cm³ / day per 50 gallons of the gross material with retention time 10 days. Thus, it is possible to use manure from fish farming to produce biogas.

Keywords: Biogas. Pisciculture. Tilapia Gift (Oreochromis niloticus)



Biopaper obtained from microorganisms

L. Xavier Filho (Universidade Tiradentes); P. Basmaji (Inovatecs); C. V. Córdoba (Complutense University - Spain)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: We propose to produce biopaper from microorganisms’ biosynthesis of cellulose and hemicellulose. The potential capacity of microorganisms to form biocellulose and hemicellulose fibers was analyzed. Biocellulose/biohemicellulose is expected to be a new biodegradable biopolymer.

Keywords: Biopolymer, fermentation, microorganisms, Acetobacter xylinum

[Abstract] [Paper]


Bird Survey as an Indication of Environmental Integrity in Preservation Areas



Abstract: Preservation areas are mandatory for all Brazilian farmers, according to Forest Act – Law 12.651 of May 25th, 2012. The purpose of these areas is the maintenance of the flora, fauna quality of the soil and water. A Bird Survey was performanced on a preservation area of a small agricultural property in Holambra – São Paulo - Brazil. This property follows the good agricultural practices so that erosion, soil and water contamination are avoided. The preservation areas, including native vegetation and reforestation areas, are maintained without any anthropogenic activities. Bird survey was made in the preservation area in 2003, 2005, 2010 and 2013. The data indicated a trend of increasing diversity and species richness over the years. Despite the intense use of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, no dead or intoxicated birds were found. These data demonstrate that the agricultural activities were not impacting the birds diversity and richness. The careful maintenance of the preservation area and its surroundings also contribute to the conservation of local biodiversity.

Keywords: Good agricultural practices, preservation areas, birds

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]


Bottle-to Bottle PET Recycling

A. F. Formigoni (UNESP); I. P. A. Campos (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Population growth and the continued incentive to consumption of discardable industrial products has led nowadays to a non-stop growing of the amount and the diversity of the urban waste. The option to just dispose of industrial, commercial and home waste in landfill sites has led to their near saturation. Employment of these residues as raw materials has been adopted as a solution to this problem, but is young as an activity and thus, still not recognized as the best alternative. In the present dissertation a critical analysis of the problems posed by the bottle-to-bottle recycling of PET, for use in the food industry, in the general context of PET recycling is presented. The loss and recovery of the desired material properties, chemical and biological contaminations are discussed herein, as well as the fundamental question what the law about it is nowadays, and why, and how it might be better formulated. At this point in time, the Brazilian market recycles ca. 50% of the total produced PET, and this means that there is still potential for a lot to be done in what regards to PET recycling.

Keywords: Recycling, environmental impact, PET, bottle to bottle

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

BSH and 20 years of Montreal Protocol

I. Ribeiro (BSH Continental)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: In 1987, in Montreal, the United Nations (UN) established a global action program called the Montreal Protocol, about substances which deplete the ozone layer. Ten years after the Montreal Protocol, the UN signed the Kyoto Protocol, which aims at reducing the emission of gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. In alignment to these Protocols and confirming its environmental responsibility, since its opening in 1997, BSH Continental Home Appliances group – Hortolândia, incorporated the Hydrocarbon (HC) Cyclopentane as an isolating and expander agent. Following this continuous improvement philosophy and in tune with the Federal Government and the Ministry of the Environment, BSH Continental once again innovated and implemented, for the first time in the country, another HC in its production, the R600a refrigeration gas also known as Isobutane. The R600a is composed by carbon and hydrogen and it is considered a “natural fluid” similar to LP (Liquefied Petroleum), largely used in Europe, specially in Germany. The hydrocarbons – natural gases produced from petroleum totally harmless to the ozone layer and with a global warming potential value similar to the CO2. The hydrocarbons are refrigeration fluids intrinsically more efficient than the HFCs. It means that, with technological advances, the possibility for future reductions in the energy consumption of the refrigerators is more likely to happen than with the use of HFCs. For a country such as Brazil, with a significant potential for the increase of the number of household appliances per resident, the choice for more economic technological lines in the energy consumption, protection of the ozone layer and with the preservation of the global environment is, without a doubt, the challenge and the objective for the refrigeration industries that aim at manufacturing innovative products with clean technology and that contribute for the sustainability of the planet. Aware of the harmful effects to the Environment caused by the gases used in industrial processes that contribute for the depletion of the ozone layer and the global heating, BSH Continental, anticipating the implementation of more restrictive requirements for the use of these gases, included the isobutane gas (also known as R600a) in its production line or also call of R600a, which combined with the cyclopentane used as an insulator and expander, will form what we can call the 100% Ecological refrigerators.

Keywords: Global warming, ozone layer, isobutane, hydrocarbons

[Abstract] [Organizational Report in Portuguese]


Building an Ecodesign Transition Framework toward Sustainable Product Innovation


Abstract: In order to effectively integrate environmental aspects into product development processes, companies have to significantly change some of the practices and habits of all involved stakeholders and organisation.To complement earlier research and the (technical) “hard side of ecodesign”, this article explores the promising “soft side” that considers company culture and human factors,through a multiple steps literature review.Whereas a consistent prescriptive change model is still lackinginecodesignliterature, astrong convergence and synergy is shown with the emerging Transition Management approach designed for sustainability issues facing organisations. The principles of an “ecodesign transition framework”are proposed, combining a three-level systemic approach, complementary top-down planning and bottom-up innovation, through new types of interaction and cycles of action and learning, with a deeper stakeholder management. This new combination could be capable toaddresschange management issues and help companies evolve toward a more effective sustainable product innovation process, in the context of evolving business management practices.

Keywords: Ecodesign, integration, change management, transition, sustainability

 [Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Business Certifications for ISO 14001: Descriptive and Comparative Study of the Evolution Over the Period 2000 to 2010


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The evolution of certifications in the last decade highlights the concern about aspects related to environmental management in enterprises, based on a overview from every continent on the standards of the ISO 14000 series. In this sense, the aim of this article is to demonstrate the growth of certificated companies based on information consolidated from the descriptive and comparative analysis, identifying continents and countries that grew the most from 2000 to 2010. The research is: bibliographic, documentary; descriptive and exploratory research. Regarding on the approach is: qualitative and quantitative. The results demonstrated the evolution of the certifications over the period studied, and gave visibility to the current stage of certifications by continent and countries. It was found that companies use certifications as a requirement for improving the indicators of competitiveness, innovation and for eliminate barriers imposed by importing and exporting countries. The requirements to certify the environmental management system are related to the compliance of internal and external procedures, where companies seek to meet of the stakeholders.

Keywords: ISO 14001 certifications, environmental management system, continents, countries, companies.

Business Cooperation Networks: Contributions to Sustainable Production


Abstract: Cooperation between companies in the form of networks, has been highlighted as an alternative organizational configuration in response to recent economic and technological change. Is also evident from the literature that the pursuit of sustainability and Cleaner Production (CP) contributes to increased flexibility and capacity in the case of this study, as guiding the Enterprise Cooperation Networks. Thus, it is studied two approaches Enterprise Cooperation Networks, produced by researchers from Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo, from the perspective of the contributions of networks on sustainability and Cleaner Production. A literature review that allowed us to compare the approaches of establishment and operation of networks has been carried out with the proposed focus, concluding that the networks have in their essence the necessary elements to create opportunities to adopt the methodologies and methods of sustainability and Cleaner Production (P + L).

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Sustainability, Business Cooperation Network. Competitive advantage

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]



Case Study BrazilGlass - New Business Patterns

MUNIZ, A. G. L. (UNIP); CORREA, D. A. M. (Ernest & Young); AMARAL, F. V. A.; NOGUEIRA, M. ABE, J. M. (UNIP)


Abstract: This report is produced in accordance with the method of SWOT analysis of the company BrazilGlass, the strengths identified throughout the study suggest that the company has a good vision and strategy practice new standards. The research is made of numerous interventions in the company throughout its existence in search of a Cleaner Production. The company is technologically updated and seeks to offer products with new materials, better design, energy saving and respect for the environment. It knows the importance of airtightness, insulation and durability in its products and therefore moves towards a new phase within the universe of locks of facades made in the industry. The company provides its products in good lighting, minimizing the inconvenience caused by the incidence of the sun, wind and rain and developing systems that have gone through various stages of evolution. For this innovation in the production of laminated glass, tempered glass, screen printing, insulating glass and window frames and coatings. It is important that investments in advertising campaigns and reducing the cost of goods is on the orderpaper in the company to make the process more sustainable and have more possibilities in front of their direct competitors. We highlight environmental responsibility and cleaner production aiming for sustainability of their processes, including a margin of 100% reuse of materials and waste released into production

Keywords: Glasses and Cleaner Production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Case Study for Recovering of Landfill Landscape of Toledo-PR

C. C. Meinerz (UNIOESTE); J. C. Klein; S. Dimbarre (UNIPAR); D. Mondardo; P. P. Bellone; L. B. Santos; F. Scherer (UNIOESTE)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The work was to propose guidelines for the recovery of landfill landscape of Toledo - PR. The development of a technology coverage aimed specifically end the establishment of a vegetation, initially was based on an established diagnosis of physical and chemical characteristics of soil used in the final layers of coverage. We collected samples of soil in the depth of 0-20 cm, which were established some parameters such as pH, Saturation of bases, cation exchange capacity, macro and micro nutrients. The spontaneous flora of the area studied is composed of species that escaped from cultivation; from the remnants of species in natural surroundings. In this study may notice that there were no significant differences in relation to the relevant witness, therefore, the results allowed the suggestion of studies and definitions of species that can be used revegetated in the cell and closed the surroundings of the landfill in the municipality of Toledo-PR. The determination of the chemical analysis of soil from landfill showed great concentration of organic matter, derived from waste, can avail of nutrients already deposited in the soil, however, requiring small levels of application of fertilizer and lime to promote better development and resistance of the species recommended.

Keywords: Sanitary embankment, degraded area, revegetation, slope

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Caso Cuba. Un Camino al Desarrollo Sostenible

J. J. C. Eras (UCf-Cuba), D. G. Lorenzo, A. S. Gutiérrez, L. Hens (Free University of Brussels-Belgium), C. Vandecasteele (K. U. Leuven-Belgium)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This work analyzes the cuban model for sustainable development and explain the causes in order to convert this country in the world the only that in accordance with World Wide Fund for Nature accomplish the requirements for sustainability. Explains the results in education and health sectors such improve the high value for IDH. Also analyzes the Cuban foot print and policies applied in both fundamental aspects, the carbon foot and agricultural lands. This makes available the economic growth without sensible increasing for the foot print.

Keywords: Cuba, Sustainable Development, IDH, Foot Print

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish]

Cell Layout Application in Product Recovery: a Lean Proposal to Increase Efficiency in Remanufacturing

M. Bouzon, C. M. T. Rodriguez, A. A. de Queiroz (UFSC)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The growing demand of organizations for technological alternatives to reduce environmental damage and meet the new legislative requirements has brought greater focus to the activities of product recovery. Remanufacturing is a means of recovering a product. It is defined as the process of restoring a product to its original specifications with the reuse of materials, improving quality and functionality. However, the remanufacturing industry faces difficulties and is considered an unstable and inefficient environment if compared to manufacturing. Therefore, this paper proposes a cell layout based on lean manufacturing concepts and adapted to the remanufacturing context, aiming to minimize waste, reduce variability and ultimately increase efficiency.

Keywords: Remanufacturing, cell layout, lean remanufacturing, product recovery

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Challenges in the integrated management of health and the environment: the case of a university campus

Z. A. I. Miranda (SENAC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: In this article we can see the experience of the implantation and certification of an Environment Management System in a different atmosphere from the usual undertakers atmosphere. This is the Santo Amaro Campus of the SENAC University Center , settled in an area of approximately 120 thousand square meters, which has 21 undergraduate courses and 7 graduate, in the health and environment areas, fashion and art, hotel management and tourism, exact sciences and design. Almost 4.000 people, among pupils, employees and teachers, 1/4 of this total is renewed during the year, this fact brings an additional difficulty to be certain that there will be a good level of participation and knowledge of these people. The Ecoefficiency Program was created by SENAC/SP in 2002, with the purpose of committing all its 60 units to the environment,  beyond its formal obligations of attending legal rules. 2005 was the beginning of the implantation of the SGA of the Campus, with the direct participation of 14 people, among directors, employees, teachers and pupils. In December of 2006 the campus concluded an exhaustive and well succeeded process of audit, as a way to guarantee its adjustment to the settled rules. The examined case presents peculiarities and changes relative to the usual processes of implementation and certification of environment management systems which are identified and discussed in this article. It is detachable that the adopted model anticipates 3 certification levels, with the purpose and growing, complexity, attending to a NBR ISO 14001:2004, and incorporating components of health and occupational security, creating an integrated management system. It was decided that to begin the certification process at once required the  level II, because of the complexity of its activities and by the necessity to incorporate the participation of the pupils to give credibility to the SGA.

Keywords: Environment management, auditing, certification

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Challenges of Inter-Municipal Public Sector Consortia in the Management of Solid Residue in Brazil: Case Study of Public Sector Consortia Santa Tereza Valley - ConVALE and Serra Dourada Valley – VALEcon


Abstract: This paper studies the challenges of federal entities interested in constituting public sector consortia with a proposal to solve issues related to solid residues in Brazil, following the requirements by the National Policy on Solid Waste. This analysis was based on a case study regarding public sector consortia: the Inter-municipal Consortium of Santa Tereza Valley – ConVALE– constituted by municipalities of Santa Tereza (state of Goiás) – Trombas , Formoso, and Montividiu do Norte; and the Inter-municipal Consortium of Serra Dourada Valley (state of Tocantins) – VALECon – constituted by municipalities of Paranã – Palmeirópolis, Jaú do Tocantins, and São Salvador do Tocantins. Our analyses, researches, interviews and training course led us to conclude that the development of regional solidarity, the formation of paradigms through investments in professional training, the service of consulting and training managers would solve the major problems in public sector consortia.

Keywords: Public sector consortia, solid residues, National Policy on Solid Waste

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Challenges of Teaching Corporate Environmental Management in Brazil: The “5 Ls”

C. J. C. Jabbour (USP-FEARP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Teaching corporate environmental management (CEM) is fundamental for the education of more responsible students. We analyzed the main challenges for CEM in Brazil from the viewpoint of teachers. Results indicate five types of barriers for teaching CEM, denoted here as the “5 Ls”, namely a lack of integration of other teachers in the teaching of CEM, a lack of acceptance of CEM as a subject by the peers teachers, a lack of focus on business while teaching CEM, a lack of CEM teaching materials appropriate for the realities of Brazil and a lack of interest among some students in CEM.

Keywords: Corporate Environmental Management, Brazil, Education for Business, Environmental Management

[Abstract] [Paper]


Characteristics of Environmental Management Systems in the Construction Industry

CAMPOS, L. M. S.; TRIERWEILLER, A. C.; CARVALHO, D. N.; BORNIA, A. C.; SANTOS, T. H. S.; SPENASSATO, D. (UFSC); SELIH, J. (University of Ljubljana-Slovenia)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: The managers seek to implement policies, procedures and techniques for managing the environmental impacts of business activities, which requires a systemic view. Environmental issues can no longer be treated in isolation; they integrate a system that requires planning, implementation and continuous improvement, demonstrating the importance of adopting Environmental Management Systems. The study of the construction sector is crucial as it allows the operation and expansion of other industries, but the environmental impacts that construction generates should be considered. This article aims to present the theoretical basis for preparation of items to be answered by the project participants of International Cooperation: Brazil, Slovenia. This project was signed between Santa Catarina Federal University and Santa Maria Federal University (Brazilian institutions), and by University of Ljubljana (Slovenian institution), which aims to conduct a comparative study of the construction industry in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazilian states) and Slovenia, from the standpoint of environmental management and ways to implement Environmental Management Systems. Regarding research methods, we proceeded to review the literature focusing on environmental management in construction. The first group of items aims to identify the profile of the respondent company, the second group of items is relative to the Quality Management System (although the aim of the paper is the Environmental Management System, it appears that there is the tendency of companies having ISO 9001 certification seek ISO 14001), the third group of items deals with issues related to the Environmental Management System. The preparation of the questionnaire came from a survey of literature, identifying the motivators and barriers to implementation of Environmental Management Systems, among the barriers listed for the respondent are: Lack of pressure from the government, lack of customer support, High costs for deployment, out sourcing creates problems in implementation, lack of technology, complex documentation, lack of support from employees, Weak environmental culture among competitors, lack of initiative among firms in the segment. Among the barriers are: Standardization of procedures for environmental management, social recognition (improvement of company image), increase the environmental awareness of contractors and construction sites cleaner. The concern with the implementation of Environmental Management Systems is notorious, surpassing market issues and become an important competitive advantage. Finally, the standards of ISO 14001 do not require of the organization an optimal level of environmental performance, but help it to achieve their own environmental goals.

Keywords: Construction Industry, Environmental Management System, ISO 14001, Quality Management System, ISO 9001



Characterization of Brazilian Red Mud (Bauxite Refinery Residues) and Assessment its Properties for Futures Applications

M. L. P. Antunes, F. T. da Conceição, G. R. B. Navarro (UNESP)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Aluminum is an abundant element in the Earth. In contemporaneous World it has huge application and it is very important to economy. However, Production of aluminum is associated with the generation of red mud as the major waste material. Its disposal remains an issue of great importance with environmental concerns. The alternative is find and develop red mud applications. Its applications depend on its properties. This way, the present work aimed to characterize the Brazilian red mud and after heat treatment by different techniques (granulometric analysis, powder X-Ray diffraction, thermal analyses, gas adsorption – BET, transmission electron microscopy analyses and ICP analyses). The Heat treatment of red mud increases the surface area which can promote adsorption applications. With heating of red mud, the quantity of iron oxide increases. This allows other application to red mud as coagulant, catalyst or Fenton reagent. The heat treatment enables new applications for red mud.

Keywords: Red mud, aluminium, thermal analysis, characterization

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Characterization of Organic Coffee in Mexico


Abstract: Organic agriculture, considered by many researchers as sustainable by their production processes and their environmental advantages, as being opposed to using technological packages of the Green Revolution - use of transgenic seeds, high use of Agrochemicals, loans with high interest rates, peasants exclusion of markets and their traditional knowledge of crop management -. In rising from organic agriculture, either it creates new specialized marketing channels, by direct purchase of the property or by retailers and processor networks; however expectations of participating in the international market were slim to none. In this sense, certifying bodies create conditions to include the products of small producers in international market and create trust with consumers. The Mexican organic coffee is a good example of the organic production incentive policies and as organizations working on certifications, as is the case of Unión Ejidos de la Selva. However, it is necessary to generate information on current standards of certification and specialized public policies in organic production. The objective of this paper is to present certification of organic product models and how the Mexican organic coffee is within the international market. For the preparation of this work, were performed bibliographic research on the organic handling procedures, certifications, certifying bodies and the Mexican public policy specialized in organic production. Some data were obtained by the authors in 2013 at the professional residence in the Unión Ejidos de la Selva organization

Keywords: Unión Ejidos de la Selva, Production Clean, Ley organic products, Organic Agriculture

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]


Characterization of Resultant Effluent of the Washing Process of Plastic Film Evaluating Treatment Application for Electrolytic Process


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The water is a fundamental component for the process of raw material preparing for recycling plastic post-consumer, for participate as element of removing debris and dross that contaminate the raw material matrix used. The present work aims characterize the water washing of one recycler of plastic type film (bags) to estimate increments and pollutants as a general form to gross water, through the parameters indicators of characteristics physic-chemical, relating the influence of plastic volume prepared for recycling with solid volume. These results will serve as a basis for preparatory estimate of removal these solids through the application for electrolytic process, considering the effluent characteristics before the process and after the electrolytic process.

Keywords: Treatment, water resources, recycling, film

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Characterization of Waterworks Sludge and Coal Ashes Aiming its Use in Manufacture of Brick

M. V. da Silva, D. A. Fungaro (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, fly ash is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. Efficient disposal of coal fly ash is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The present work is being developed with the objective of evaluating the viability of the use of the sludge of the treatment water plant stations along with the coal ashes to manufacture bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Paraná State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in São Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. The materials were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis and granulometric analysis. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. None of the bricks produced in the studied conditions has attended the requirements of the Brazilian norms of quality of compressive strength.

Keywords: Coal Ashes, Waterworks Sludge, Brick

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Chemical Characterization and Minerals of Roasted Pyrite Ash of an Abandoned Sulphuric Acid Production Plant

CIVEIRA, M. S. RAMOS, C. G., TAFFAREL, S. R., KAUTZAMNN, R. M. (Centro Universitário La Salle)

Abstract: The obtention of sulphurgenerte a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as arsenic, selenium, uranium, among others. A number of elements, such as arsenic, cromium, copper, cobalt, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, strontium, titanium, zinc, and zirconium, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

Keywords: Coal rejects, sulphuric acid production, nanomineral impacts, potentially hazardous element

 [Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects and Generation of Clean Technologies in Brazil

C. Andrade (UFBA); A. Costa (UFBA); L. Nápravnik-Filho (UNIFACS); A. C. Telésforo (UFBA); A. Ventura (UFBA)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: One of the Kyoto Protocol’s innovations was stipulating mechanisms that aim at the cooperation among countries to mitigate the climate change. Only the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) makes the participation of developing countries possible. The article’s goal is to evaluate the contribution of Brazilian CDM projects related to the Energy Industries for the generation of clean technologies. From the analysis of the 37 projects that had received carbon credits up to 2007, it is possible to conclude that this contribution remains incipient: only 3% of them could be characterized by the development of clean technologies focused on cleaner production. Thus, considering that clean technology and cleaner production are the most adequate environmental strategies to reach a sustainable development, it is not possible to affirm that these 37 Brazilian CDM projects are effectively contributing for this target. So, the analysis of the Brazilian projects related to the Energy Industries reveal that, at least in Brazil, CDM is far from achieving the fundamental purpose of minimizing the global warming via the stimulation of a cleaner development model relied on the cooperation among countries.

Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), clean technologies, cleaner production, brazilian energy industries

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): Prospects for Production of Bioelectricity by the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry


Abstract: The Bioelectricity is the most recent and promising product of Brazilian agribusiness. The new activity, the importance of which was recognized in recent years in the Brazilian scenario, is far removed from conventional industry standard for production, ie, requires new forms of knowledge and management before little used, especially in agricultural industry. Thus, through an exploratory research this paper aimed to identify the current situation in the Brazilian cogeneration plants identifying the potential for energy generation from all Brazilian plants and possible opportunities for creation of certificates for Clean Development Mechanism projects in the sector. As conclusions can be observed that the current technological capacity to generate bioelectricity from sugarcane bagasse is in the initial stage, but with potential to increase installed capacity.

Keywords: CDM, sugarcane industry, sustainability, biomass, energy, cogeneration

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Clean Technologies (Bio-Fertilizers) Alternative to Urea for Production of Basil in and Out of Season

C. Cabanillas, D. Stobbia, A. Ledesma (National University of Córdoba-Argentina)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The growth in the use of pesticides and fertilizers which cause pollution of surface and belowground water, soil, air, flora, fauna and produce negative effects on the health of the population, has increased interest in clean technologies like bio-fertilizers. In the context of sustainable agriculture, the objective of this research is assess the effects of different biofertilizers (vermicompost) and urea in the production of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) variety Catamarca INTA (wide leaf) in and out of season. The seeds were sown in the greenhouse in March (out of season) and in October (in season). The treatments used were: vermicompost from bovine ruminal content 50%:50% soil (LCR), vermicompost from rabbit manure 50%:50% soil (LEC), urea 100 kg/ha and the soil (control). Completely randomized design was applied with three repetitions and thirty plants per treatment. The variables were analyzed by ANOVA and the mean comparison was performed by Fisher LSD (p<0.05). The results indicate that the variables are significantly increased in season: the number of leaves and branches are greater and is double the height and aerial fresh weight, of the root and the total fresh weight, and aerial dry weight are fourfold greater while the total dry weight, of the root and leaf area produced three times the amount produced out of season. The time-substrate interaction was highly significant for height. In both seasons it can be observed the highly beneficial effects of vermicompost than the ones achieved with urea and control, but urea station has a more favorable effect than the control. In season the LEC performs better in terms of the number and area of leaves and chlorophyll content compared to LCR. In both periods, the use of vermicompost produces better results due to its effects on all production variables. These clean technologies are a sustainable alternative to the application of urea in the production of basil both in and out of season.

Keywords: Clean technology, biofertilizers, vermicompost, basil, production

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]

Cleaner Energy Production and Sustainable Investments: A Portfolio Analysis in the Italian Electricity Market

CUCCHIELLA, F.; GASTALDI M.; TROSINI M. (University of L'Aquila, Italy) 


Abstract: The recent climate change, global warming, environmental disasters and the economic crisis are only the first signs of the failure of an economic system that, for too long, shows an uncontrolled utilization of the planet wealth. The Italian electricity market, which is strongly dependent on hydrocarbons, only in recent years has seen a first attempt to change towards renewable resources for electricity production aimed at self-consumption and for feeding into the grid. This paper presents an economic analysis whose purpose is to evaluate the sustainability of investments in renewable technologies for the production of electricity. Each renewable source has its own profitability dependent on a number of factors and subject to market fluctuations, cost and frequent changes on the incentive policies. Applying Portfolio Theory is it possible to select the right mix of renewable energy sources to be included within the renewable energy balance and simulate its evolution. Moreover the presented analysis can be useful for energy planners to select future green scenarios finalized to the reduction of emissions and energy imports through the increasing use of renewable energy.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, Portfolio Analysis, Sustainability, Sharpe Index

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Cleaner Machining Through a Toolholder with Internal Cooling

L. E. A. Sanchez, V. L. Scalon, G. G. C. Abreu (UNISC)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This work treats of a cooling system for cutting tool in turning based in a toolholder with cooling fluid flowing inside its body being that this fluid must necessarily be able to phase change due to heat generated from machining processes. In this way the fluid evaporates just under the cutting tool allowing a heat transfer more efficient than if were used a fluid without phase change once the latent heat of evaporation is beneficial for removal heat. Following, the cooling fluid evaporated passes through a condenser located out of the toolholder where it is condensated and returns to the toolholder again and a new cycle is started. In this study the R-123, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) fluid, was selected for the turning of a Cr-Ni-Nb-Mn-N austenitic steel of hard machinability. As result, the developed system allows a tool life equal to or better than the conventional cutting fluid method, moreover there are environmental and economics advantages once the cooling fluid is maintained in a loop circuit.

Keywords: Turning, internal cooling, dry machining, tool life, coolant fluid

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Cleaner Production and Aspects of National Policy of Solid Waste in the Clothing Manufacturer Sector


Abstract: It is estimated that Brazil annually manages more than 8,000 tons of waste originated from the clothing industry, of which more than 80% may be irregularly arranged in landfills and dumps. The National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS) requires a change of this scenario by establishing management tools for all waste generated in productive and service sectors. The proposal brings ambitious goals for public and private managers for non-generation and proper disposal of waste at all stages of the production process. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the Cleaner Production (CP) can contribute to the development of a culture that seeks elimination, reduction and reuse of scraps generated in the clotting industry, with actions that encourage efficiency in the production process. Unlike traditional management methods that focus on stocks of generated waste, the CP seeks improvements in the process itself, increasing the potential for reducing the generation of waste and minimizing the amount to be allocated. Implementation of Cleaner Production in seven (7) Clothing industries in the state of Paraná reduced around 12% of the generation and the possible re-use of up to 100% patchwork generated in the industrial process, exceeding the goals established by PNRS.

Keywords: Sustainability. Process. Textile. Environmental Indicators

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production and Environmental Aspects in Sugar-alcohol Industries

R. P. Alvarenga; T. R. Queiroz (UNESP-Tupã)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The sugar-alcohol sector can provide an important form of production with an efficient and environmentally correct. The problem of burning the straw of the cane for hand made harvest is already near-end. The law that puts an end to the burns, the current advance in the agro-mechanization and the increasing technological advancement of the cane harvesters are contributing in a systematic way to eliminate the problem of pollution from carbon dioxide. The management model used by the Cleaner Production of sugar mills and alcohol is not always what actually characterizes what happens in many sugar-alcohol industries. Moreover, the production of electric energy made by the sugar cane bagasse, the way of waste bagasse and filter sediments released to the environment weakened the production really clean. These are released to the ground often disregard the ability of the soil behaves.

Keywords: Sugar-alcohol Industries, sediments emission, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production and Environmental Management as a Sustainable Product Innovation Antecedents: A Survey in Brazilian Industries


Abstract: Cleaner production(CP) methods and environmental management practices are tools that strive for production process efficiency, the use of its input and the generation of industrial waste. These tools can significantly contribute to sustainable product innovation, due to the rational use of natural resources and the minimization of generated wastes. This study aims to measure the relations between the conditions for sustainable product innovation, considering the constructs of CP and environmental management. It alsoexamines the relationship between sustainable conditions and product innovation and financial performance as well as the size of the moderating effect of the companies on the relationship between the constructs. In this context, a Survey in 762 companies of different sizes was carried out in the metal-mechanic sector in Brazil. Structural Equation Modelingmethods were used for results analysis.The results show that the constructs of CP and environmental management are important antecedents for sustainable product innovation, and relevant mediator of financial performance. Accordingly, the way for companies to produce new environmentally sustainable products is through the presence of cleaner production and environmental management practices. For the academic field, the make-up of a framework for the analysis of the relations of the categories constitutes the main contribution, as well as providing management information to decide on the implementation of sustainability programs, resulting in higher financial gains through product innovations sustainable.

Keywords: Cleaner production, Environmental management, Innovation sustainable product, Financial performance, Brazilian Industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cleaner Production and Environmental Sustainability: Case of a Plastic Industry in Serra Gaúcha

J. C. F. Guimarães (FTSG), E. A. Severo, E. Dorion, P. M. Olea (UCS) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Given the large consumption of natural resources, environmental impacts, the organizations have been incorporating into their strategies the concept of sustainability. Today, the organizations are becoming the object of new expectations about their responsibilities to society as agents that dispose of financial and technological resources to solve with more agility, decisiveness and direction environmental problems. Cleaner Production (CP) incorporates technological, economic and environmental processes, products and services in order to increase efficiency in the use of inputs and raw materials to reduce waste, nongeneration, minimization and recycling of waste generation, providing economic and environmental benefits. The most important aspect of CP is that it requires not only technological improvement, but the application of know-how and a change in management behavior. These three factors together are what makes the difference compared to other techniques related to production processes. The objective of this research is to examine the results obtained by the implementation of CP in production processes in a plastic industry of the Serra Gaúcha. The current case produces accessories for the furniture industry and construction, is active on the national and international markets for about fifty-six years. In implementing a CP strategy, the company has developed a new process for producing a polystyrene handle. From this case study, a qualitative research was executed and the results show a reduction of 90.3% of the waste of raw materials and other contaminants, as well as a reduction in production costs by 36,4% of the polystyrene handle. Another improvement from the CP process occurred in the substitution of materials for the painting of handles through the use of new technologies, causing a 60% reduction in loss of material in use, and a 9.6% reduction in acquisition costs inputs for the painting. Furthermore, it is noteworthy to mention that in addition to CP practices, the company treats all its effluents and wastes from the production process, contributing to the economic and environmental sustainability of the organization.

Keywords: Cleaner production, environmental sustainability, plastic industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production and Ergonomics: a case of waste minimization and improvement of work conditions

E. C. Batiz; S. M. Alves; O. Gallo (SOCIESC); A. J. de Souza (Whirlpool)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This paper was made in thermal treatment area, in salt bath oven of an enterprise of North of Santa Catarina. Its goal was to determinate the factors that influence to waste generation of salt used in process. It was observed that mean cause of wastefulness is the position which the workers are obligated to adopt due to pre-determinate procedure, as well, the layout and tools used. The impossibility of workers maintains the workpiece draining of salt inside of oven, that due to weight, tool characteristics and the area conditions, causes an additional worker position problem. With direct observation technique, mo, filming, pictures and spaghetti diagram verified that due to layout the workers walk 430 m daily and this is one of the causes of salt quantity that is waster. This quantity is around 2.1 ton/year. With use of ergonomic and cleaner production principles were eliminated the detected problem of worker position, as well the unnecessary passage of workers and workpieces. It was proven the existence of strong synergy between ergonomic and cleaner production. Also both can be applied to improve the environment and to preserve the health, as well, to guarantee the workers safety.

Keywords: Work conditions, waste minimization, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production and Innovative Processes for an Industry of Re-Manufacturing Automotive Plastic Parts in Hermosillo, Sonora


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Currently, industries are required to include best practices in order to reduce the impact of their activities with their environment. The nature of the production process of industry will be the determining factor in efforts to prevent pollution. So making a precise characterization of the process is an essential part for cleaner production. This work, with this recognition, aims to propose a program of cleaner production and pollution prevention in a remanufacturing industry of automotive plastic parts in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, this program is based on the eight steps of a Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, taking place within the period of May to December 2012. During the development of this research was detected the existence of environmental and occupational risks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was made for the assessment of these, in order to broaden the scope of understanding. Increase the scope of the project is recommended in order to take advantage of the corporate interest in improving their practices due to the importance of achieving a greater competitiveness on terms of sustainability.

Keywords: Cleaner production, pollution prevention, industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]

Cleaner Production and Product Life Cycle Design of the Upholstered Furniture in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

A. Rapôso (UFBA-IFAL), A. Kiperstok, S. F. César (UFBA) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents some results concerning environmental and organizational aspects obtained from analysis of the manufacture processes of upholstered furniture in the Furniture Cluster in the State of Alagoas, Brazil. The methodology is based on concepts of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production. The data were collected through interviews with employees and direct observation in the local. The results indicate the need for advanced studies to identify possible changes in the product and / or in the development process of upholstered furniture of that cluster. The partial conclusions suggest a future application of Life Cycle Assessment on one of upholstered furniture to improving the manufacturing efficiency through the cleaner environmental practices.

Keywords: Cleaner production, product life cycle design, furniture production, upholstered furniture

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production Application in a Wood Industry in Amazon State

B. G. Pereira (INPA); I. R. Neto (UCB); K. Yuyama (INPA); H. G. Pereira (Kali-Umwelttechnik GmbH Sondershausen - Germany); C. L. P. de Matos (SEBRAE-AM)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This study shows the proposal of implantation of the Clear Production program (PmaisL) in a company Portela Industry and Commerce of Wood, located in Manaus-Am. Currently, the Portela company, wood floor producer for the external market, operate only with 25% of capacity, because their have difficulties for to acquire more legalized raw material. In current situation view, have been suggested practical of PmaisL with low costs, and Sebrae-AM subsidy at Technological Consulting Program, with economic and Environmental benefits. From the application of PmaisL methodos and on the basis of the identified chances, were opted to working with improvement of operational practical in the wood drying sector, for also having a direct relation with the quality control and for being the initial plant process, it is a basic process for the wood improvement. As intervention proposal, was created and used one accompaniment time-table of temperature and humidity that controlling and programmer the best time of drying, to be followed by an employee detached for this function. This measure generated a reduction of four days in the setting time/heater, with reduction of 1,4% in raw material with defect, 50% of water consumption in the heater, 25% of energy consumption, 25% of exploitation of residues in the ovens, diminishing in 25% of pollutant gases emission. Other generated benefits had been: generation of a new job; reduction of risks with burning equipment and accidents caused for the lack control and the time increase of the drier. The good acceptance of the PmaisL by the manager was attributed for any cost for the company, therefore the implemented action was gave for actions changes and insertion of procedures in the tasks application.

Keywords: Environment management, residues reduction in the source, good practical, wood company, Amazon

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production Applied in Sealer Process of Paint Shop from an Automotive Company

L. Wiemes (FAMEC); U. Pawlowsky (UFPR)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: In an automotive company, much kind of residues are generated diary. They are of the most variety possible and have to be disposed properly too, according to the specifications that the company has to follow. To study a specific process or residue it took much time and trained people to evaluate the best way to avoid his generation. Normally, the person responsible to realize this study is a technical or an engineer and as the companies nowadays have greats dimensions and as the work realized in a department may cause impacts in another it was decided and more convenient to create a work group to develop and solve this problem. The work described in this article was developed in a sealer process of an automotive paint shop and the author’s presents here some of the steps adopted in cleaner production to reduce in the process application: quantity of material applied, numbers of operations and quantity of residues generated. A little discussion is elaborated at the end of the article and some considerations are showed to diffuse the best practices identified in this company.

Keywords: Painting process, protection, residues

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Cleaner Production applied to the Hotel Sector

S. P. López; R. R. Rodríguez; S. L. Funes (Centro de Producción Más Limpia del Bajío - Mexico)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents the results of the Bajio Cleaner Production Center (Bajio CP Center) in its project conducted jointly with the Tourism Development Secretariat (SEDETUR) and the Guanajuato’s Environmental Protection Office (PROPAEG). The project called "Cleaner Production - Clean Company" focused on the hotel sector in the major cities of the state of Guanajuato. The objective of this project was to detect the potential savings in the use of raw materials, water and energy, and also contribute to a productive efficiency and reduction of operating costs of companies in this sector. In addition to the economic and environmental benefits achieved by the Cleaner Production (CP) and Energy Efficiency (EE) Implementation, PROPAEG joined efforts to design guidelines based on terms of reference for conducting environmental audits in the state of Guanajuato, to complement the Cleaner Production Diagnosis and Implementations. Therefore, under this scheme all the hotels that make a Cleaner Production project can get the "Clean Company" Certificate issued by PROPAEG, so in a single project the hotel can get environmental regulatory compliance, financial savings, improves public image, increases competitiveness, minimizes negative environmental impacts and the efficient use of raw materials, water and energy. So far, 34 hotels in the cities of León, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Silao and San Miguel de Allende have participated in this project. Some of the results obtained are: awareness and training to over 100 employees from the participating hotels, in terms of productive efficiency, pollution control and pollution prevention. The detection of areas of opportunity in CP and EE in 34 hotels can lead to an estimated savings potential of $3 million of Mexican pesos (around 250,000 USD). The implementation of CP and EE at four different hotels is being translated in a decrease in water consumption of 52,987 m3/year, a decrease in polyethylene bag of 1740 kg/year, a decrease of 1,532 l/year of liquid chemicals and 2,065 kg/year of solid wastes. In regard to energy, there will be a decrease in diesel consumption of 5,790 l/year, a decrease in the consumption of LP gas of 47,374 l/year and a reduction in electricity consumption of 20,308 kWh; all this translated also in a decrease in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere of about 135 ton/year. The economic benefits are savings for $ 1,191,300 pesos/year, with a required investment of about $ 218,592 pesos, which has a simple recovery rate of 2 months. Also, 3 hotels obtained the "Clean Company" certificate with a total compliance with environmental laws of the state of Guanajuato.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Guanajuato, hotels

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation]

Cleaner Production as a Corporate Sustainability Tool: An Exploratory Discussion

H. C. D. Pimenta (IFRN), R. P. Gouvinhas (UFRN) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This study brings form an exploratory discussion on the CP as a corporate sustainability tool, describing some subjects like sustainable development and cleaner production. These subjects were investigated in studies conducted by several researchers and institutions from Brazil and abroad. Thus, it was considering the three aspects of corporate sustainability, corporate social responsibility (improving quality of life), eco-efficiency (optimizing natural resources usage and reduction of pollutant burden considering the life cycle of products) and competitive position. Thus, it is possible to associate CP as a tool to assist the promotion of corporate sustainability, hence this tool allows continuously search for the environmental efficiency of operations through optimizing of natural resources usage and eliminating waste, improving the environment working by the elimination or minimization of risk to employees and community, and change the consciousness of employees facing the environmental problem, while allowing economic gains with the elimination of waste and risks, as well as increased productivity. Thus, Cleaner Production can be considered a ‘win–win’ strategy, can protect the environment, the consumer and the worker while also improving industrial efficiency, profitability and competitiveness.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, corporate sustainability, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation (ENG)] [Presentation (POR)]

Cleaner Production at an Environmental Agency: 15 Years of Experience at CETESB, Sao Paulo - Brazil

F. M. Ribeiro, J. W. F. Pacheco (CETESB) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The State of São Paulo concentrates about 40% of Brazilian industry, which although conferred a large economic force to the state has also brought several environmental challenges in its history. In order to ensure and improve the environmental quality, in 1968 the State government created CETESB, the São Paulo State Environmental Company, which has served on permitting pollution sources, monitoring the environment and transferring technology in its 40 years of existence. In 1996, CETESB made its first contacts with cleaner production (CP) and since then has developed several initiatives to foster CP in the State. This paper presents the main initiatives and the most relevant achievements, with emphasis on the institutional development and the relationship improvement with industrial sectors representatives, concluding with a brief view of the main prospects for the near future.

Keywords: Cleaner production, environmental agency, public policy, environmental regulation

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Cleaner Production Criteria and Project Management Maturity: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis in Brazilian Industries


Abstract: Cleaner Production (CP) is an important mean to systematic reduce losses of both product reuse and manufacturing processes. For the successful implementation of CP is essential to ensure effectiveness of factors that can influence this process, such as identification of used decision criteria together with an effective methodology for managing the implementation strategies of projects in order to reach the expected results. Based on the relevance of the themes, this research has the objective of measuring relationships and correlations between constructs criteria of CP, Project Management Maturity and Success CP, considering the moderating effect of Business size. This study tested 238 manufacturing industries. For the analysis and data interpretation we used the Structural Equation Modeling methodology, which was implemented by a descriptive research method. The survey results show relationships strength and correlations between the constructs, contributing to the research of CP as well as presenting a new research area that can support the assertiveness of management actions.

Keywords: Cleaner production, Decision criteria, Project Management Maturity, Brazilian Industry, Structural Equation Modeling

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cleaner Production Evaluation System (SAPmaisl): Encouraging The Continuous Improvement

R. F. W. Neetzow; J. M. Oliveira (SENAI-RS); A. V. Souza (Apoio Consultoria)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This report presents the experience carried out for the development and validation of a methodology based on the concepts of the Cleaner Production (CP) through a checking system on the continuous improvement of the CP actions implemented by the companies, with the aim to monitor and contribute for the reduction of the environmental impact generated by them. The study was developed as the extent of a Project under the technical coordination of Cleaner Technologies National Center – CNTL – at SENAI RS, with the financial support by SENAI – National Department and the Regional Departments of the states Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. Twenty three (23) companies took part on the study as pilot companies. The standard environmental performance evaluation methodology was developed based on the concepts of the CP. The norm worked out defined the following: the selection criteria of the companies to take part on the pilot project, the requirements of the Cleaner Production Evaluation System (CPES) which where verified by specialists, the certification steps in compliance to the CPES, the goals, the conditions to make pre evaluations, the issue of the CPES Support Certificate, the criteria used in order to reach the goals and the evidences to prove the compliance, the evaluation criteria, how would the company be recommended, how would this recommendation be validated, the expiring date of the certificate and how would the evaluation cycles be. The pilot companies have defined three (3) Environmental Aspects which were monitored during three (3) months, through Operational Performance Indicators. After that, in each state a technical consultancy was made in order to adjust the companies, with the aim to validate the methodology of Environmental Performance Evaluation, based on the concepts of CP. A group of specialists was selected and trained to make environmental performance evaluation at the companies, based on the concepts of CP. The results were presented by the companies showing the environmental benefits and the economic outcomes obtained. Finally, it was made a Verifying Auditory on the compliance of the proposed goals by the trained specialists and the companies who showed the proposed reductions received the CPES Approval Certificate and the CP Seal. This study presents as an example the case study of a pilot company in RS that took part in the study.

Keywords: Indicators, cleaner production, environmental performance evaluation, environmental performance indicator, operational performance indicator

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production Implementation within Textile Industry: Economic and Environmental Benefits

H. C. D. Pimenta, R. P. Gouvinhas (IFRN) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the environmental and economic benefits from the Cleaner Production implementation within a furniture industry from Natal-RN. For this, an analysis was made including operational and environmental aspects (process flow diagrams, inputs and outputs information, mass balance, environmental aspect and impact analysis, waste studies) and Feasibility analysis (technical, economic and environmental evaluation, select options for implementation). According the results, it was possible to implement the three levels of CP, through housekeeping practices (cutting and handling of chemicals); technological modification (installation of a pressure washer with the printing of fabrics); internal recycling and external recycling. Regarding economics, there was an annual savings of R$ 55,946.96, making the company more productive and tend to become more competitive.

Keywords: Cleaner production, operational and environmental adequacy, textile industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production in a Steel Industry



Abstract: This paper focuses on the efficiency of steel production process of a steel industry located in the Northeast of Brazil through the eyes of eco-efficiency that integrates the three aspects of sustainable development which are economic, environmental and social. Aims to analyze the critical inputs and residues from the point of view of industrial eco-efficiency according to the Cleaner Production program on your electric steelworks. It is work based on information obtained directly in the industry. Although steelworks (unit where it becomes pig iron or scrap in liquid steel) is one of the most critical units of the steel plant, where the slag is formed, which represents the largest amount of residue generated and the greatest financial waste, it was observed that the industry in question the use of slag as a co-product for the cement industry was the choice for process improvement. Considering that the scrap, pig iron and lime are the inputs with more expensive costs in steelworks, the process temperature control is a practice that allows the reduction of these inputs, and lower energy consumption. Another practice adopted in the steelworks is the purification of scrap. It follows, therefore, that the application of the Cleaner Production program provides a significant improvement in industrial processes, particularly the steel industry.

Keywords: steel industry, steelwork, sustainable development, eco-efficiency, Cleaner Production.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cleaner Production in Construction Sector

L. S. Goron (PPGEM); R. M. C. Tubino (UFRGS)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Brazilian National Environmental Council created, in july 2002 the 307 resolution, which started to be value in January, 2005. Since then the construction sites had to adequate their site works. Because of it, trying to reduce the environmental impacts and a better efficiency of the construction process, it was created in Porto Alegre, Brazil, a group of 7 contractors partially sponsored by SEBRAE and supported  by National Center of Clean Technologies- CNTL and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul- UFRGS, with the objective of the application of the Clean Production methodology. This paper reports this experience of the construction sector, with very good economical results to the participants enterprises.

Keywords: Construction solid waste, clean production, environmental impacts

[Abstract] [Organizational Report in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production in Construction Sector: a proposal of minimization of residues in the source

C. Mattosinho (UFPE); P. Pionório (FASETE)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The industrial residues make possible to verify an enormous inefficiency in the productive processes, being been that the same ones directly affect the conditions of life of the humanity. The construction sector possesss an enormous parcel of contribution in the deterioration of the ambient quality, since one of its characteristics is the used raw material wastefulness and assistant in the constructive processes of urban enterprises. The present work has as objective to consider a solution to minimize the generation of solid residues in Construction Sector, through the application of the Clean Production methodology. Thus, the main contribution of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of if acting in the cause of the generation of the residues of the sector of civil construction, that is, to breach the paradigm of that wastefulnesses are characteristic of the sector and that the techniques of external recycling are the only exit to reduce the ambient degradation of constructive processes.

Keywords: Construction solid waste, clean production, environmental impacts

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production in Sector for the Manufacture of Leather Artifacts: Overview and Considerations

K. M. C. Mattos; M. R. Monteiro (UFSCar)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The environmental concern with the residues of the Sector of Manufacture of Leather Devices is justified by the high generated volume and by the degree of contamination with toxic metals of these residues. The residues of the leather contain high dosage of chromium - substance used in the tanning of bovine skin. It’s not degradable, chromium is a risk of contamination of soil and groundwater in areas where residues are deposited. The substance is a heavy metal that can cause allergies and even cancer, if present in large quantities in the human body. Heavy metals, such as chromium, differ from other toxic agents because they are not synthesized or destroyed by man. Residues containing toxic metals have high power to contamination, than the cost of the high cost for its disposal in industrial landfills. Within this context, the paper presents an overview on the sector, the importance of the methodology of Cleaner Production and the first steps of this tool to evaluate the productive process and try to minimize residues generation, reduce costs, increase competitiveness and gain environmental sector and the population as a whole.

Keywords: Residues, leather, chrome, cleaner production, management system

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production on Bakeries: Perspectives and Oportunities

E. M. M. A. Nóbrega; T. C. B. Pereira (CEPIS-PB); C. Buser (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz - Switzerland); A. F. F. Queiroga; E. P. de Almeida; L. R. Porto (CEPIS-PB)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The relationship between mankind and nature has suffered many mutations a long of the years, leaving different marks in the landscape with different effects. Among these marks, one can emphasise the desertification process which is caused by predatory anthropic actions and the exploitation of natural resources in very fragile environments, generating desert-like areas which affect, as a result, the life quality of thousands of people in the entire world. In the State of Paraíba, firewood is nearly disappearing and is becoming rare for it has been used in an unplanned and random way by many industries. The intense use of firewood in the State of Paraíba justifies and motivates CEPIS – Centro de Produção Industrial Sustentável (Centre of Sustainable Industrial Production) which is an action of SEBRAE-PB and the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs of Switzerland (SECO), and is technically supported by the University of Applied Sciences of Northwestern Switzerland (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz). CEPIS aims at taking C+P actions in the bakery sector in order to reduce the environmental impacts through the rationale use of energetic resources and through the optimization of the productive process. The main goal of the project is to identify opportunities to improve the productive process of bakeries, applying the Cleaner Production Methodology. To achieve this goal, data is collected (Quickscan), the results are analysed (EcoInspector), there is a discussion and identification of potential opportunities of improvements, and suggestions of Cleaner Production are raised. After analysing the obtained results, it is observed that the identified options may be considered the first step to find feasible Cleaner Production solutions, However, it is important to emphasize that some options such as good housekeeping practices may be identified and implemented straight away to bring economic and environmental benefits to the company in a short time.

Keywords: Bakeries, cleaner production, wood and energetic efficiency

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production Opportunities in a Dairy Farm and Cheese Factory

J. Esquer, C. D. Cordero,  L. E. Velazquez, N. E. Munguía (UNISON-Mexico)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: According to the National Institute for Federalism and Municipal Development (INAFED by Spanish acronym), Sonora´s livestock activity possess the national prestige of being one of the main livestock producers in Mexico because of its magnificent quality and its ability to cover the demand of products as well as its important contribution to the national exports. Internationally, this state has been recognized by the United States of America for being a disease free zone referred to livestock production. One of the derivates obtained from the cattle is cheese; all around the state is possible to find different places where this food is produced, from small producers who make the cheese in a home-made manner with gas or even wood stoves in some small communities, to big industries who count with sophisticated equipment and a big investment capacity to commercialize and also export this product. As the cattle raising and cheese production are common activities within the region, analyzing this industries from the cleaner production perspective takes a higher relevance. The aim of this paper is to show relevant results from a study conducted on a cheese production facility in a small city at the northwestern side of the state. The most important opportunities found were those for reducing the energy demand for thermal processes and improving the manure management system, among others; such things will not only achieve an improvement on the company´s environmental performance, but also it will provide a considerable economical benefit which is expected to work as a motivation for further and deeper research and analysis.

Keywords: Dairy farming, cheese, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish]

Cleaner Production Opportunities in Furniture Manufacturing Process Custom-Made: a Case Study of a Wardrobe



Abstract: This article aims to present cleaner production opportunities in furniture manufacturing process custom-made from a case study of a wardrobe.The method applied in this mapping was the UNIDO / UNEP for the implementation of Cleaner Production Programs from simplified model of the Clean Technology Network of Bahia report (Teclim), Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA).The results indicate significant production losses, that generated suggestions for improvement in the areas of planning, metal cutting, physical layout, safety, inventory of raw materials.Also identifies strategies to increase the eco-efficiency of processes and products in several orders of magnitude (factor 10).One is the creation and implementation of software to optimize the process of project design and budget.

Keywords: cleaner production, furniture production, custom-made furniture, opportunities

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cleaner Production Philosophy Applied to Metal Covers Packaging Industry of Seafood

S. M. Kakuda A. L. Berreta-Hurtado, C. A. K. Gouvêa (SOCIESC)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: A packaging manufacturer company produces metal covers as part of the package to stow fish. In this process the metal sheets are submitted to a stage where they are cut and it is necessary after-varnishing to avoid any oxidation and a consequent reduction of the package life cycle and food contamination. The pre-existing varnishing process consisted of mixing varnish and hardener by gravity, but it did not allow a total control over the two components. Besides, it was necessary to maintain mechanical agitators working constantly even during weekends and holydays in order to prevent curing inside pipes. As a consequence, the process resulted in residue incrustation in the equipment and pipes, as well as solvent waste and uncontrolled residues destination. Cleaner production philosophy was implemented through installing an air compressed equipment to mix the two-component varnish and control their quantities, what led to a considerable varnish economy even with metal covers production growth. This allowed cleaning pipes and shutting off the equipment after use with no risks of obstruction. Waste control and solvent recycling were implemented and resulted in material economy and product quality.

Keywords: Cleaner production, waste reduction, environmental impact

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Cleaner Production Practices in Military Organization Service Provider Industry (MOSP-I): a study in the Naval Base of Val-de-Cães, Brazil

R. A. Maranhão (USP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The increase and diversification of activities within the Military Organizations Service Providers Industrial (MOSP-I) have provided increased waste generation and consumption rates of energy and water, making it necessary to support the planning for the integrated management of environment in order to maintain the environmental quality, from stock control and waste treatment, energy efficiency and waste-water. The methodology known as Cleaner Production (CP), based on practical principles that include integrated actions between aspects of environmental quality, occupational health and safety, promoting development and transfer of clean technologies. The results show decline and improvement in various sectors through programs of the organization itself to reuse waste projects and solutions to improve the functioning of elements of different subsystems and prevent waste. Other products expected to include a program that will include workshops on environmental education, improvements in handling, packaging and disposal of waste generated, as a condition for improving the quality of the environment at the Naval Base of Val-de-Cães.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, environmental management, military organization

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production Program in the cut sector of a textile industry

F. F. Rubino; J. C. Campos;  L. Yokoyama (UFRJ); D. S. A. Batista (FIRJAN)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: One of the largest challenges of the organizations is to keep the competitiveness in the global market in a sustainable way and to assist the need to minimize the environmental impacts. Like this, this paper has as objectives the application of the Cleaner Production in the section of cut of a big textile industry, in way to modify old habits of the company. Through the minimization of the generation of residues and better use the raw material, they are obtained environmental and financial benefits. So, the enterprise will be fortified. Cleaner Production in the cut sector of the textile industry reached the economic benefit about R$ 550 thousand; improvements in the system of information; beyond the awareness on the part of the company of the importance of the employees training.

Keywords: Cleaner production, sustainable development

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production, Process Innovation and Environmental Benefits: A case from the Metal-Mechanic Industry in Serra Gaúcha, Brazil

E. A. Severo (UCS), J. C. F. Guimarães (FTSG), M. R. da Cruz, E. Dorion (UCS) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The Cleaner Production methodology (CP) provides organizations with viable alternatives to minimize and prevent solid waste production, liquid effluents and atmospheric emissions, efficient use of raw materials, especially water and energy, reducing environmental risks to human beings and bringing economic benefits to companies. Process innovation occurs through the adoption of new forms and methods of production. These methods allow improvements in productivity, reduce costs and waste; increasing the productive life of equipment and processes, among others. The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental and economic benefits for a company, through the use of the CP methodology and the process of innovation that were implemented in a companu of the metal-mechanic Pole of the region of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil. The research method is exploratory and applied to a case study. The company is active on the Brazilian market since 1954, producing a number of products for the construction, furniture, automotive and housewares industries. The CP methodology of CP was implemented in 2007 and the teams are currently undertaking improvement, articulating the innovations in the search of waste reduction from the source, the incorporation of new technologies; bringing benefits to the work environment. The implementation of these process innovations has generated a 65% reduction of the production of oil and water wastes. These innovations resulted in a 67.9% savings on treatment and final disposal of these wastes. Through the CP methodology, the innovations developed caused economic and environmental benefits, which contribute to the sustainability of the company.

Keywords: Cleaner production, process innovation, metal-mechanic industry, Serra Gaúcha.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production : A Bibliometric Study in Scopus Data Base


Abstract: Environmental issues have influenced the industry regarding changes in their production processes to minimize environmental impacts. The growth of this concern has enabled many researchers to develop scientific research on cleaner production practices, making enough frequent theme. In order to understand the scientific literature on this topic, we performed a bibliometric study. The analysis was divided into three periods: until 1999, from 2000 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2014. Information on the articles were obtained from Scopus. It was possible to evaluate the main authors of published works, the main journals, the productions took place a year and the keywords associated. Among the most productive authors, there is a great permeability of the area because only one of the authors figured in the list of the most productive in the three periods. The application of Lotka's law that the distribution of articles by authors adheres to the model, although over time there is a change in the shape of the curve due to changing patterns. Among the journals there was a significant predominance of the Journal of Cleaner Production and a scattering among periodicals related areas, showing the interdisciplinary aspect of the area. The study of keywords indicated a recent increase approach of practical issues and specific environmental issues such as biodiesel and biofuels

Keywords: Clean production, bibliometrics, scopus, lotka

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cleaner Production: The Case of the Automotive Metal-mechanic Local Productive Arrangement from Serra Gaúcha

E. A. Severo; P. M. Olea; G. S. Milan; E. Dorion (UCS)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Industrial production allied to a vertiginous economic improvement, during the last decades, has provoked negative impacts to the planet’s natural resources, what reflects in society’s life quality and environmental health. Currently humanity has faced extremely complex environmental problems, whose solution seems to be in applying a preventive environmental strategy, instead of having corrective actions. Undertaker strategies, up to then summarized to the economic matter, such as competitiveness, efficiency, profitability, etc, start to concern about environmental variables, and it is, then, vital to incorporate them to productive processes. Organizations started to adopt new technological strategies, by means of implanting environmental management systems. Face the environmental matter, these systems are seen as a competitive difference, as well as a factor of organizational improvement, in order to rationalize the consumption of natural resources. The expectation is environmental management strategies, besides decreasing the environmental impacts, may generate more profit, increasing the company’s competitiveness and efficiency. Within this scenery, there are different methodologies in environmental management, as well as practices of Cleaner Production, which consider the opportunity of reducing costs, once a polluting organization is usually an entity that wastes raw material and inputs. The objective of this study was to identify environmental innovations, Cleaner Production methodologies and the results of implementing all of this. Three companies were analyzed in the Automotive Metal-mechanic Local Productive Arrangement from Serra Gaúcha (South of Brazil). It is a multi-case qualitative research. From the results, it is possible to highlight companies implemented technological innovations, once the objective was to improve the productive process. Results from the implementation of Cleaner Production methodologies show the studied companies had improvements in factors related to the productive process, such as increasing the operational efficiency, reducing costs with raw material and energy, and improving the product’s environmental quality. Consequently, all these improvements have generated competitive advantage for the company that is placed in a more and more global scenery.

Keywords: Cleaner production, environmental management, operational efficiency

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production: the report of an experience

Presented by: F. C. F. Clementino; F. J. P. Pereira (SEBRAE-RN)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The SEBRAE of RN, in partnership with CNTL/SENAI-RS carried out a course to form consultants in cleaner production for small and micro companies. As a participant, I carried out the practical part of the consultance in cleaner production in the company Tecniplas Nordeste Plásticos Reforçados Ltda., situated in Natal/RN. Therefore,  it was used a computer program  involving several determinations, being presented in this narrative some information regarding cleaner production and the reduction of waste as: case study and economics and environmental results

Keywords: Cleaner production, waste reduction, environment

[Abstract] [Organizational Report in Portuguese]

Cleaner Technologies and Sustainable Development: contributions of Brazilian Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects

A. Costa, J. C. S. Andrade (UFBA) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper evaluates the contribution of ten Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects for the generation of cleaner technologies and the promotion of sustainable development in Brazil. The results of this multiple-case study demonstrate the prevalence of projects that: a) use end-of-pipe technologies; b) have a single or double bottom line profile with regard to sustainable development; c) show endogenous technology transfer, with the acquisition/development of most of the know-how and equipment in Brazil. In short, this paper defends Brazilian CDM projects make only a modest contribution to cleaner technology generation and to the promotion of triple bottom line sustainable development.

Keywords: Cleaner technologies, sustainable development, the Clean Development Mechanism - CDM

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cleaner Production with Emphasis on Environmental Sustainability and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Study in Southern Brazil


4th International Workshop

Abstract: As a result of globalization and breakneck industrial development, concerns about pollution and the environment encompass a global level. However, environmental degradation can undermine an entire local ecosystem, and some negative impacts may also be felt in different biomass. Accordingly, organizations can minimize the environmental impact by making use of environmental practices, such as methodologies on Cleaner Production (CP). Cleaner Production refers to actions that allow a company to qualify itself as an efficient user of raw materials and energy during the production process, aiming to increase productivity and consequently, to increase competitiveness and improve organizational performance. The Automotive Metal-Mechanic Cluster (AMMC) of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, is seen as an important industrial Pole in Brazil, due to its high concentration of spare parts, agricultural machinery and transport vehicles production companies.The AMMC is currently the second largest cluster of its kind in Brazil. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the relationship between CP, environmental sustainability and organizational performance, in 298 companies of the Serra Gaúcha Cluster. In this regard, a survey was realized and Structural Equation Modeling(SEM) was implemented for data analysis. The results show that companies the AMMC in the Serra Gaúcha seek alternative processes to reduce costs and contribute to the company's image for their customers. Moreover, practices related to environmental sustainability, such as CP are often used among Metal-MechanicCompanies. It was also observed that CP practices influences environmental sustainability, as well as organizational performance, showing that the CP methodologies contribute to increase production capacity and flexibility, and improving aspects of health and safety. It is evident the contribution of CP for the performance and competitiveness of organizations. It is worth noting that companies in the Serra Gaucha tend to work committed to environmental sustainability welfare workers, society and the environment, while still moving up by coercive and normative pressures.

Keywords: Cleaner production, environmental sustainability, organizational performance, Brazilian metal-mechanic industry.


CO2 Flow Accounting in a Commercial Bamboo Plantation Aiming the Paper Production

L. Ghelmandi Netto; B. F. Giannetti (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Given the significance of climate change for the sustainability of human society, the need for studies that address the storage of CO2 is increasingly important. Thus, this study evaluates the potential for mitigation of global emissions of CO2 in commercial plantations. In this case, the system chosen for study is a commercial plantation of bamboo for the paper production industry, located in northeastern Brazil. Besides the main activity of the plantation, additional scenarios has been adopted, heading a more complete evaluation of CO2 released and stored in the lifetime of the bamboo plantation (25 years). Alternatives for reducing the CO2 released in the use of plantation’s resources were also studied.

Keywords: Commercial plantation, bamboo, CO2 emission, CO2 storage, paper production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Coagulation/Flocculation Process with Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam for the Removal of Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium Oocysts from Water

L. Nishi, G. S. Madrona, A. M. S. Vieira (UEM), F. J. Bassetti (UFTPR), G. F. Silva (UFSE), R. Bergamasco (UEM) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Waterborne diseases occur worldwide, and outbreaks caused by the contamination of community water systems have the potential to cause disease in large numbers of consumers. Among waterborne diseases, gastroenteric ones are the most frequent. Approximately, 19% of outbreaks in the USA are attributed to parasitic protozoans, especially species of Giardia and Cryptosporidium because of their wide distribution in the environment, high incidence and resistance to conventional chlorination treatment. In conventional water treatment, several chemical coagulants are used, most commonly aluminum sulfate, although the production of non-biodegradable sludge and indications of damage to health have led to a search for other coagulants that are less harmful to the environment and to human health. Therefore, several natural coagulants are being studied, such as the seeds of Moringa oleifera. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of moringa seeds as a coagulant for the removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, color and turbidity from raw water. To carry out the coagulation assays, raw water was artificially contaminated with these protozoans. This water was submitted to coagulation/flocculation with different dilutions of a stock solution of 1 % moringa seeds, and the mixtures were tested in a jar test apparatus. The water samples were analyzed before and after the coagulation assays. In order to assess (oo)cysts removal, samples were analyzed by the membrane-filtration technique, with mechanical extraction and elution followed by direct immunofluorescence technique. Water color and turbidity were measured according to the procedure recommended by the Standard Methods. Concentrations above 150 mg/L from the 1% solution of moringa seeds gave the best (oo)cysts removal, about 94% to Giardia cysts and 90% to Cryptosporidium oocysts. Turbidity removal ranged from 0 to 97.4%, color removal varied from 6.7% to 73.5%. Color and turbidity removal were found to be dependent on the initial turbidity of the water sample and the concentration of coagulant. Coagulation with moringa seeds gave satisfactory results in reducing the number of protozoan parasites (oo)cysts. The use of M. oleifera Lam seeds can be considered advantageous and a promising step towards improving the processes of water coagulation/flocculation to remove these protozoans.

Keywords: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Moringa oleifera, coagulation/flocculation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Coals Industrial Beneficiation Processes from Santa Catarina, Brazil: Inorganic Components Geochemical

DALMORA, A. C.; LIMA, B. D.. TAFFAREL, S. R.; OLIVEEIRA, M. L. S. (La Salle Universitary Center)


Abstract: Comparative research of the mineral matter and trace elements in 12 pairs of run-of-mine (ROM) and clean-coal products from beneficiation plants in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, have been developed out using lowtemperature oxygen-plasma ashing, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis techniques with the aim of estimate the effect of coal preparation on the mineralogy and chemical composition of the final coal products. The results showed that substantial reductions in mineral matter and ash levels are associated with beneficiation of coals mined from the different deposits. These reductions are accompanied by changes in the levels of Fe2O3 in the respective coal ashes, due to the reduction in the proportion of pyrite in the mineral matter, and also by a reduction in the level of Na2O, possibly due to ion exchange within the clay minerals. The relative proportions of quartz, clay minerals, and minor phases such as calcite and feldspar (mainly albite) within the mineral matter are not, however, significantly changed by the beneficiation processes. The concentrations of most trace elements in the beneficiation products are similar to the respective concentrations in the relevant ROM materials, or are reduced to an extent similar to that of the total mineral matter level for the respective coal samples. This indicates an association mainly with the clay-rich mineral matter. The concentrations of As and Pb, however, are reduced to a greater extent for most samples by the beneficiation processes, in accordance with a pyrite association. Concentrations of Ge, U and Zr are higher in many of the clean coals than in the respective run-of-mine materials, indicating the possibility of preferential association, at least for some deposits, with the organic-rich fractions of the coals concerned. Comparison of ROM and clean coal products from Santa Catarina preparation plants shows significant reductions in ash, mineral matter and total sulphur percentages associated with beneficiation, and also in the relative proportions of pyrite within the mineral matter. With the exception of pyrite, the mineral matter of the clean coals, as determined by quantitative X-ray diffraction, is similar to that of the respective ROM materials, with abundant quartz, kaolinite, illite and interstratified illite/smectite, and minor proportions of calcite and other accessory phases, and appears to have been little changed by coal preparation.

Keywords: Mineral matter, X-ray diffraction, coal preparation, pyrite, trace element

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Combining Sustainability and Quantitative Models - An Analysis for the Countries of The BRICS -


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The interest in the development of indicators to measure sustainability is growing, but there are few studies about the changes of these indicators over time. In this context, this paper presents a temporal analysis of CO2 emissions for the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) on period of 1980 to 2010, except for Russia (1992 to 2010). The analysis of CO2 emissions here treated as an indicator of sustainability, presenting in the preliminary current situation and future emissions of these countries on a horizon of 10 years. Although the series analyzed and estimated to be short, it revealed some important information. The estimation by means of ARIMA models and exponential smoothing coefficients showed statistically significant. From a practical point of view, the ARIMA model has better adhesion to the series since it had the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The estimated growth of CO2 emissions confirms the unsustainability of the BRICS future. Finally, the experience of this study suggests the use of predictive models for quantitative analysis of sustainability.

Keywords: Sustainability, CO2 emissions, ARIMA, Exponential Smoothing

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Comparative Analysis of Cleaner Production Implementation in South American Countries: Brazil, Chile and Colombia


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Cleaner Production (CP), proposed by UNEP, concerns an environmental management strategy that seeks to prevent environmental impacts and risks, and increase the efficiency of processes, products and services. This strategy has been adopted by governments and companies worldwide alongside increased environmental degradation and stricter legal requirements. This paper presents an analysis of the implementation of Cleaner Production policy, in the context of public policies, in three countries in South America with a history of environmental sustainability: Chile, Colombia and Brazil. The goal was to clarify which institutional arrangement contributed the most to encourage companies to adopt Cleaner Production strategies. The methodology consisted of a qualitative exploratory research using bibliography and public documents. The results indicate that the three countries have different institutional-political arrangements concerning Cleaner Production, which explains the different reactions from companies and the different levels of success of CP in each country. Governments most active, with strong policies and environmental management frameworks, such as Chile and, in part, Colombia, show the best results. It is observed that when the environmental management is actually government policy, the production sector is motivated to continue to improve its environmental impact over the years.

Keywords: Cleaner production, public policy, environmental management framework.


Comparative Analysis of Houses Construction Using Emergy Accounting

C. S. Carvalho (Universidad Alberto Hurtado - Chile), Y. Ogura (UNIP), E. Grinover (Grinover Associados), A. R. P. L. Albuquerque (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: We present an application of the methodology of environmental accounting in emergy, comparing the environmental impact generated by a house designed in a timber production system of "exploitation", the second wood of the first use and third, masonry type, from the same architectural project. By using the graphical tool - ternary diagram - , rates the emergy flow and environmental indicators in emergy, in the three models studied. The results showed a favorable trend for the home designed in wood production system of "exploitation", all indicators were higher than the other two cases under study, highlighting the environmental sustainability index of 125 times larger than the house of masonry. This system proved to be less constructive aggressive to the environment, which may allow the adoption of this house as a habitation solution of Vilhena in the state of Roraima, the city adopted as a model for this study.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, emergy account, environmental indicators, sustainable constructive system, "exploitation" wood

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Comparative Environmental Assessment for Public Luminaires

O. Sanchez Júnior (IPT)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: A comparative analysis was performed to compare the design of two distinct products, ie, luminaires manufactured by different processes (manufacturers) to obtain sensitivity and validate the technique of LCA for product redesign. Following recommendations of ISO 14040, was defined the scope of study to ensure that its breadth, depth and degree of detail to attend the established objective. The inputs and outputs relevant to all stages of life were recorded. With the support of software GaBi 4.0, the environmental impacts were obtained from environmental surveys. The functional unit was customized in order to promote a gain in sensitivity when comparing the environmental performance of both products. The products were then compared according to the environmental impacts considered. From the strategies prescribed by the ecodesign approach, we identified the main points to be improved in the redesign of products to mitigate the potential environmental impacts associated with its life cycle and improve on their environmental performance. Thus there was the potential of technology as a development tool for this type of product.

Keywords: Acv of lighting products, acv of luminaires, environmental assessment of lighting products, products redesigning by acv, ecodesign of lighting products.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]

Comparative Study Between the per Capita Generation of Solid Residues of two buildings - Lago and Caraíbas, Goiania, Goias


Abstract: The objective of this study is to conduct a comparative research between horizontal and vertical buildings in middle-class condominiums in the city of Goiânia regarding their respective per capita residues by assessing the specific weight of solid residues in the location and indicating the factors of possible influence on their production. Using the collected data, we quantified the per capita generation of these residues in Condominium do Lago (Horizontal) as well as inCaraíbas Building (Vertical). The methodology employed in this study was divided into five stages: bibliographical review; definition of thearea ofresearchwith technical visits;information; collectionin loco, residue quartering. The results led to the conclusion that both buildings generate practically the same amount of residue; it is required to enable alternative destinations for urban solid residues as well as to develop effective and permanent programs for environmental awareness and improvethe management of solid residues in the location.

Keywords: Urban solid residues, gravimetric composition, quartering

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Comparative Study of Methods for the Synthesis of Silica Gel from Biomass Residue Ash of Sugarcane


Abstract: Biomass residue ash of cane sugar (ACS) was used on synthesis of silica xerogel (SG) by three different routes. SG was produced using alkaline extraction followed by acid precipitation. The process of synthesis was optimized by applying a wide range of experimental conditions. No SG was obtained using classic hydrothermal treatment for silica extraction. SG was successfully synthesized via fusion with NaOH followed by hydrothermal reaction used to prepare sodium silicate solution. The best condition for silica gel productionwas achievedwith gelation of silica carried out at 80 oC. Our experimental data suggest that the ACS could be converted into a value added product, minimizing the environmental impact of disposal problems.

Keywords: Silica xerogel, Biomass residue ash, Sugarcane

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Comparative Study of the Sustainability and the Human Development Index

F. J. C. Demetrio; B. F. Giannetti; C. M. V. B. de Almeida (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents the environmental and economic study of the city of São Luís was used in the accounts came to calculate the ESI. It develops also study about the HDI and related method is by comparison with other cities. It is the result that the city of São Luís has a medium ESI, equal to 2.9. The ESI is much better than the other cities under study have a high HDI, thus generating a discussion between the development model adopted by the cities.

Keywords: Emergy, Human Development Index, urban sustainability, ternary diagram

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Comparative Study with Emphasis on Emergy Environmental Sustainability of food with nutritional similarity

R. L. Guarnetti; B. F. Giannetti (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Well known and traditional foods such as potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage and beans have important place in the world’s alimentation. Options for not so well known foods in the West, but rather consumed in Asian countries such as bamboo shoots, offer nutritional value comparable to many of these traditional aliments. In this sense, aspects of environmental sustainability of these aliments were evaluated and compared. Among them, bamboo shoots are more sustainable. When the study considers the production efficiency, the potato is the better option. The main nutrients of each aliment according to the emergy per unit invested were also evaluated to find more sustainable options for obtaining a specific nutrient from these aliments.

Keywords: Bamboo shoot, ternary diagram, emergy, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Comparing the Environmental Performance of two Cosmetics Soaps using the LCA´s Technique


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The society ́s environmental awareness growth resulted in a need to produce consumer goods and services in a more rational and harmonious way with the environment and, within this scenario, new environmental techniques have emerged, and the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) achieved prominence, since it can be used by companies as a tool for decision support environment, from environmental relevant indicators and characterized as a competitive opportunity for diverse sectors of economy. In search of an opportunity for differentiation, there are the cosmetic industries that have the need to present news and may, with the application of LCA methodology, develop more sustainable products. The cosmetic products more consumed are the soap, bar and liquid, which may in its manufacturing processes, favoring the use of plant ingredients and use the appeal of being environmentally friendly products, but a more detailed study of all its processes, may include the use of somenon-renewable source materials and the use of soap in the bath, may disqualify itfrom the eco-friendly appeal. Therefore, in this study, sought it the application of LCAtool chain management of two cosmetic soaps, bar and liquid, allowing the identification of critical steps and their assessment of their environmental effects, performingan environmental comparison between the results for the choice of which soap isless harmful to the environment. It was conducted a case study in a cosmetic companymanufacturer of bar soaps and liquid and were evaluated the production processesin the suppliers of raw materials soaps, its use in the bath step process andthe packaging dispose of these soaps. Through this model, it was possible to identifythe most critical stages of manufacturing processes, to observe the impact that thestage of use of cosmetic soap in the shower and compare the differentiation of impact that the type of packaging promotes in a life cycle assessment' study. The RECIPE2008 was used as the LCIA methodology and at the environmental comparison of the two soaps, it was possible to conclude that the liquid soap had less over-allimpact than the bar soap. The impact categories like Climate change and Fossil depletion were the most significant for both soaps and the Transformation of land was significant only for the bar soap.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment, Soap,Cosmetic Industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Concepts, Principles and Tools for an Urban-Industrial Environment More Sustainable

T. S. Dalbelo, R. A. Freire, E. W. Rutkowski, E. Z. Monteiro (UNICAMP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to understand how the concepts of Industrial Ecology, the principles of the certification of buildings and the tools of sustainability indicators can relate to achieve a more sustainable industrial architecture that integrates and benefits the urban environment. Such a search is made from a survey of the applications of environmental certification systems in industrial buildings and also the main concepts related to indicators of environmental performance in buildings and Industrial Ecology. We propose a comparative analysis of key concepts and there is a correlation between certification and Industrial Ecology.

Keywords: Industrial Ecology, building certification, sustainability indicators and industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Conceptual Framework and Principles for Selection and Definition of Sustainability Indicators: An Study Applied at Ecoinnovation in Smartparks Project (Spain and Brazil)

HANAI, F. Y. (UFSCar); FELICIO, M. C. (USP); SILVA, S. P.; GABARRELL, X. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain); OMETTO, A. R.(USP); RIERADEVALL i PONS, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain); ESPOSTO, K.; AMARAL, D. C. (USP)

Abstract: This study is inserted in jointly developed project (Eco-innovation in Smartparks) with researchers from Spanish and Brazilian universities (Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Federal de São Carlos e Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), aiming to define and to propose specific tools and indicators to contribute for addressing sustainability from the perspective of Ecoinnovation in Smartparks.The concept of Eco-innovation in Smart parks is a proposal that seeks to develop and to apply (in an innovative, integrated and significant way, with an improvement of production processes) new sustainable approaches of conceiving planning and territorial management, integrating symbiosis on industrial, urban and agricultural fields. The concept of Eco-innovation in Smart parks includes new ideas, actions and operations in order to reach: the optimization of the efficiency of processes; the reducing of consumption and use of natural resources; the reuse of supplies and materials; and the reduction and/or proper disposal of wastes. Smart parks require indicators that are appropriate for addressing sustainability from the perspective of Ecoinnovation and, today it was observed the insufficiency or even the absence of indicators in comprehensive scales that consider the planning and management of Smartparks, and incorporate the various relations of symbiosis and practical approaches and applied sustainability. Thus, the research has studied approaches and principles for Smart parks conception, as well models, criteria and frameworks of sustainable indicators, in order to define and to stablish a Indicators framework for Smartparks application. The framework is composed by three categories representing stages of a Smart Park development (Planning, Monitoring and Management): “Infrastructure and services”; “Activities and Operation”; and “Interactions and symbiosis between institutions and Smartpark”. Twenty one aspects of these categories detail and help to guide the development of a set of indicators for Eco-innovation in Smartparks. It is expected that these results support the improvement and implementation of specific indicator systems for parks with industrial, agricultural and urban symbiosis, providing scientific basis for future researches on Eco-innovation and SmartParks.

Keywords: Indicators, Smartparks, Ecoindustrial Parks, Eco-innovation, Symbiosis

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Confection and Evaluation of Properties of Polyurethane Plaques with Waste Recovery from Surfboard Fabrication


Abstract: This study allowed information to be obtained regarding the most important aspects which affect the production process of polyurethane (PU) surfboards in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was observed that the main residue from the production process is PU solid waste. The intended reuses of this solid residue it as raw material for the manufacture of new polyurethane sheets for making surfboards. Polyurethane sheets were prepared by incorporating different percentages of the PU waste collected, with two particle sizes (9 mesh and crude), into the matrix. The results showed that the mechanical properties the tensile strength of the sheets are influenced by the particle size and the percentage of PU incorporated. The degradation of the material begins at 200 oC and thus this material is stable in environmental temperature for use surfboards. Finally, in addition to the experimental results, it is noted that the production process of surfboards in Santa Catarina has sought ways to reuse their waste, aiming at cleaner production.

Keywords: Productive process, Polyurethane, Waste, Recycling

[Abstract] Paper in Portuguese]

Continuous Improvement of Processes on the Electronic Sector: obtaining Environmental Indicators using Software

E. F. de Queiroz (CPMBraxis IT Services-SP); M. L. P. da Silva (USP & FATEC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The need for sustainability on human entrepreneurship leads to changes in management. Some changes can be aided by Industrial Ecology concept and enterprise planning (ERP) software. Therefore, the aim of this work was obtaining appropriate methodology to use enterprise software on the implementation of Industrial Ecology concept. The electronic sector was chosen to be evaluated and case studies analyzed any part of this sector. The software is used on definition of sustainability indicators and on identification of processes improvement due to Industrial Ecosystems formation. Due to the high value of electronic products, several cost reductions, social and environmental improvements were detected. The improvements came from the reuse of non products, inside or outside the entrepreneurship, and some efforts should be done on Industrial Ecosystem formation on this sector. Case studies showed as main parameter the distance between the enterprises and as one of most important environmental parameter the carbon dioxide emission. Nowadays, the sector is an open cycle production with high emission. However, on Microeletronics raw material production, the use of quartz fragments and sugar cane bagasse is an interesting approach that requires changes on production site due to the distance. Microeletronic can reuse water in closed cycle or with galvanic enterprise combination, other reactants and aqueous solutions are useful on metallurgical sector. Printed circuit board can be favored by joint venture and waste commercialization. Finished equipment can be recycled but the main drawback is the legal structure. The use of software for improvement on sustainability is feasible and can be implemented in small and medium enterprise using only databse and electronic frameworks. This approach is low cost and assures the implementation of Industrial Ecology concept on the enterprise.

Keywords: Industrial ecology, electronic sector, software ERP, industrial ecosystem

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Contribution of Packaging to Cleaner Production Goals

G. Radonjič (University of Maribor - Slovenia)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Packaging industry is faced with challenges of using different strategies to prevent emissions at the source and to initiate continuous preventive improvements of its production processes. However, numerous other industries and services use packaging products which gives packaging products a specific feature. Thus, firms should be aware of modern trends of packaging products. Dematerialization of packaging is a continuous trend which has important role in source reduction but at the same time has detrimental effects on recyclability. However, the latter is still often believed to be one of the most important environmental criteria for packaging in different cleaner production programmes. Considering such dilemmas, two major questions arise with regards to packaging role within the concept of environmental protection and cleaner production. First, how to quantitatively evaluate its environmental impacts and, secondly, to what extent packaging contributes to the reduction of overall (life-cycle) pollution prevention. Namely, protective role of packaging is too often neglected in discussions on packaging and environmental pollution problems. In a paper different aspects of packaging in line with the environment are discussed which confirm that packaging must be viewed in a wider context as usual because not only technological but also demographic and social changes significantly influence its environmental image. This effects not only the production optimization but also the environmental profile of the whole product supply chain.

Keywords: Packaging, environmental impacts, dematerialization, supply chains

[Abstract] [Paper]

Contribution to the Electric Matrix of Brazil in 2050 - Decentralized, Cleaner, Efficient and Renewable


Abstract: There is an aggravated prospect in the Brazilian electricity production, due to a shortage of affluent energy in the hydric production, requiring a greater thermal use. For the future, the insertion of hydroelectric power plants predominantly without reservoirs will make this need even more evident. Due to the thermal structuring, there will be more emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumption of fossil resources per unit of electricity produced. A model that does not align with the search for sustainable development.The objective of this paper is to present an alternative future scenario, elected 2050, of electricity supply in the country, beaconed on the acceleration in the use of renewable sources, premise postulated in alignment with the pursuit of sustainable development for the country. The "research, analysis and synthesis" is adopted, with a systemic approach, and applying the indicators elected the paramount to reach the goal. Part of author's doctorate thesis is synthesized, this systematized from data and information from different types of documents produced by international and national authors and organizations as well as governmental plans of expansion of electric energy production. From the theoretical and methodological framework adopted, the results obtained have shown that it is possible to establish a long term plan, based on the use of the available resources, with decreased social and environmental pressure, fossil consumption, and emission of GHGs per unity of energy produced. A greater participation of renewable sources is achieved, while the participation of hydric sources, the emissions of GHGs and consumption of oil-fuels are reduced. There is no increase in the production costs. The result is a decentralized, hybrid system with larger expansion of renewable thermal, wind and solar sources, larger participation of independent production – co-generation, auto-generation and distributed generation – and a diminished load on the transmission network, compared to the current scenario.

Keywords: Renewable energy, sustainable development, energy planning, energy efficiency, emissions of greenhouse gases

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Contributions of Environmental Accounting in Emergy for  Understanding of Soybean Production System on the Perspective of Sustainable Agriculture

L. P. Vendrametto; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Brazil is considered the world’s granary because of its territorial extension and the possibility of transforming into agricultural land. In this context, the most outstanding commodity produced by the country is the soybean crop. About 21 million hectares of soybean are planted and approximately 61 tons are produced (harvest 2008-2009). The introduction of this Asiatic species in Brazil was recent, about 120 years ago, and so was its genetic and transgenic improvement. Due to these processes and advanced technology, improved knowhow of nutritional demands and greater access to information by the farmers, Brazil has stood out in the international scenario as a region with excellent production and productivity indices. Currently, other important issues have appeared that need to be managed such as the principles and methods that guide this type of production, the economic, social and environmental sustainability as well as the costs and environmental impact involved in obtaining these indices. The objective of this article is to discuss some examples of soybean production using the environmental accounting methodology and applying the Emergetic Ternary Diagram.

Keywords: Sustainable agriculture, sustainable soybean, emergy eccounting, emergy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Contributions of Knowledge Management Tools Applied To Sustainability Based on a Systematic Review of Literature


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This research aims to raise the contributions of knowledge management tools for advancing sustainability, from technology studies. We used the systematic review method to collect and analyze technology studies available in the databases ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus, in a ll the years available until May 2010. The results present descriptive analyzes of technological studies regarding the application area, the main aspects of the problem situation and the proposed solutions. Also highlighed they are the main features found in the proposed solutions, such as scope, approach, ability to integrate knowledge, among others. The article discusses the contributions and limitations of the systematic review, the connection between knowledge management and knowledge engineering, and managerial implications.

Keywords: Knowledge management, sustainable development, sustainability, knowledge management tools.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Cooperative Recycling as a Tool for Social Inclusion and Reduction of Urban Solid Waste



Abstract: The recycling cooperatives have been considered as a good alternative for removal of solid waste from the cities and also as a way to create a source of income for these workers. The present study demonstrated the difficulties and the contributions that this cooperative promotes to removing the solid wastefrom the city through a case study based on a survey carried outin the Cooperativa Central de Reciclagem da Zona Norte (CRZN) located in Sorocaba-SP. As the survey results showed that the cooperative must operate consistently and be managed properly can result as increasing the efficiency of collecting, segregation and selling the recyclable material can be resulting in higher income for workers. During the 2011 for 2014 period the average income grow to R$ 785,29 to R$ 1.409,49 and in the same period, the amount of waste removed from the city, grew three times at least. This result was possible by applying an organized management and due to use of a quality tool known as the Ishikawa diagram. The adoption of the tool also, contributed to increase the productivity and workers began to participate more actively in the strategic decisions and therefore improved self-esteem and provide good relationship with other workers.

Keywords: Recycling, Cooperative, Management

[Abstract] [Organizatinal Report in Portuguese] [Presentation]


Corporate Social Responsibility Integrated Cleaner Production, Industry Case Study of Recife-PE


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Organizations are increasingly aligned with consumer demands. These companies are driving the guiding their processes under the basis of sustainability, advances rampant economy has a strong impact on society and because of this, the population has positioned itself against organizations and local governance in order to have responses that contribute positively to social, environmental and economic. A corporate Social Responsibility refers to a business posture in order to attain sustainability throughout its supply chain, from suppliers, customers, employees how they relate to the environment. This can be aligned to the principles of Cleaner Production (CP) if the organization has integrated some action in the company. For the P + L seeks a complex analysis of the production process in order to increase efficiency. The aim of this paper is to describe actions for Environmental Responsibility and check which of these alignment with the principles of Cleaner Production in the productive sector organizations, using as a case study of a chemical branch Cleaning and Hygiene located in the city of Recife-PE, regarded here as Industry X.

Keywords: Environmental Responsibility, Cleaner Production, Industry, Sustainability.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Covenants and Partnerships with Municipalities Ran by SABESP North Business Unit for Water Resource Management

E. G. V. Souza (SABESP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The Rational Use of Water Programme – translated in portuguese: “PURA” – is a programme developed by SABESP and its objective is reduce water consume population through the world water deficit perception and economize water equipments association. The programme is developed in a public institutions and the financial support is originating from water use charges. This written work objective is illustrate this programme applied in public institutions in the São Paulo north districts, managed by Sabesp - North Business Unit.

Keywords: Rational use of water, world water deficit, public institutions

[Abstract] [Organizational Report in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

CP as a Competitive Advantage of the Product: The Consumer’s Point of View


Abstract: Producing quality and competitive price does not guarantee the success of the product. The new consumer has specific needs and starts charging industries social and environmental responsibilities. The industries engaged in society in which they operate, begin to worry about processes Cleaner (CP).The CP deployment opportunity of CP deployment, besides cost reduction, can become a competitive advantage of the product. Being a cleaner industry and portray it in the packaging appears as an opportunity to beat the competition and get into the consumers houses. More demanding consumers are aware of the industries pollution and are willing to consume cleaner products. Thus, the CP becomes not only improvements in the production process and becomes a communication tool with the society and the consumer.

Keywords: CP, Differential, Product, Consumer

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


CP Promoting System in China

Yin Jie, Duan Ning, Yu Xiuling, Bai Yanying (National Cleaner Production Center - China)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Cleaner Production has been introduced into China since 1993. After the development in nearly two decades, a comparatively completed cleaner production promoting system has been established in China. This paper makes a detailed illustration on the regulatory system, administrative system, technical supporting system and educational system for promoting cleaner production in China. Furthermore, the paper proposes some recommendations for the further development of cleaner production in China.

Keywords: Cleaner production, China, promoting system, recommendations

[Abstract] [Organizational Report] [Presentation]

CP: Sustainable Development and Environmental Higher Education

P. A. O. George (Independent Researcher)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This work presents briefly the results obtained in the reduction and reuse of waste generated in various processes by applying CP principles. The aim of this work is not only to demonstrate the effectiveness of such principles in the management of industrial processes, but also to show the science required to perform such work, with the aim of highlighting the need to include CP principles in Environmental Higher Education, as the work of university graduates have a major impact on achieving or not sustainable development.

Keywords: CP, Environmental Higher Education, sustainable development 

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish]

Cradle to Cradle: An Analysis of Certified Cleaning Products and Clothes Washing


Abstract: High economic growth and the growing demand for materials are jeopardizing the balance between the planet and human life. Thus, several innovative management models have been developed to rethink the usual production process and the lifecycle of products. Therefore, this article seeks to know companies, general cleaning products and the process of clothes washing that have the Cradle to Cradle certified program. The research involved desk research with secondary data and analyzed the official website of The Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute, as well as the email addresses of the producing industries. Information was collected on the production process, certification level, products characteristics and the strategic profile of companies. This is an exploratory, descriptive study using a convenience sample including 29 products. The analysis showed that the products are produced by a small number of industries seeking to stand out by environmental positioning from technological innovation. It was possible to notice concerns with the use of green chemistry, the reduction of the anthropogenic load on the aquatic environment and the paradigmatic break with the conventional cleaning products and clothes washing.

Keywords: Life cycle, circular economy, sustainable production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Critical Analysis of Large-Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles in Brazil

WITTMANN, D.; BERMANN, C. (USP); WITTMANN, T. F. (Professional of the Private Sector)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: The transport sector is a drag on worldwide search for sustainability. More than 850 million vehicles annually burn trillions of liters of fuel, across the planet, emitting almost three billion tons of carbon dioxide. One alternative that has established itself around the world is about electric vehicles. 4.5 million of them, 95% hybrids, are already in circulation. Brazil, with its fleet of 35 million vehicles, was licensed by 2012, less than 100 electric vehicles (not 100000, are 100). Why? This study aims to provide a critical analysis for large-scale integration of electric vehicles in Brazil. Specifically are presented and discussed aspects related to charging, autonomous, acquisitive investment, operating cost, impacts on the Brazilian electrical system, on the chain of ethanol and gasoline, reflexes in the country's energy matrix, and other related factors. Data are presented by classical methodology of research, analysis and synthesis, occurring under their treatments multidisciplinary perspective. It developed a quantitative and qualitative scientific vision of the present facts and future projections, presenting them with answers about the ideality. The study concludes (1-6): 1) Electric vehicles represent a clean option from urban centers, consuming less fuel and advantageous for countries with renewable resources for processing in electricity, the case of Brazil, 2) The government has refrained meaning barrier integration, due to the concentration of efforts on ethanol and flex-fuel engines, 3) The main determinant of growth will be represented by public policies that may be adopted; 4) In the current parameters, the integration should occur slowly without introducing large array of problems in the country's electricity generation, 5) In the long term, large-scale integration could provide reduction of final consumption for the energy matrix; 6) The big risk would not integrate: the country would lag behind of the forefront of technology and by consequence lose the participation opportunity of the Brazilian economy in an international market that already grows and tends to loom.

Keywords: Energy, electric vehicles, energy planning, renewable resources, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Crude Coconut Oil for Biodiesel Synthesis

G. S. Araújo; R. H. R. Carvalho; E. M. B. D. Sousa (UFRN)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Biodisel production has become an attractive process, aimed at stimulating the production of alternative fuels. This study presents the results of biodiesel produced from coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.), using acid catalysis (with H2SO4), followed by basic catalysis (with NaOH). A 1L jacketed pyrex glass reactor with 3 outlets was used. A mechanical agitator, thermocouple and bath for thermostat regulated refrigeration were introduced. The analysis of oil composition was carried out by gas chromatography and esters compounds were identified.The effect of oil/alcohol molar ratio, reaction time, and temperature on conversion was assessed using experimental 23 planning with a central point, in triplicate, for the route analyzed.. The molar ratio variable had the greatest effect according to statistical planning analysis. The maximum conversion reached was 85.3% for a molar ratio of 1:6, temperature of 60ºC and reaction time of 90 minutes. The Coconut oil was characterized by their physical and chemical properties and key constituents in the oil. The lauric acid was its main component and even showed high acidity. The biodiesel produced was characterized by its main physicochemical properties that had very satisfactory results when compared with the standard values from the National Petroleum Agency.

Keywords: Biodiesel, catalysis, Cocos nucifera, crude oil, coconut

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cryogenics Containers for Cargo Transport

J. L. A. Lima; M. S. Nogueira Neto; J. B. Sacomano; J. P. A. Fusco (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This study aims to present cryogenics as an element in transportation systems, utilizing carbon dioxide as refrigerant. This technology is not current, although its effective application in transportation gain force after the Protocol of Kyoto, besides that studies found out new ways to sequest CO2 at lower prices. Another feature to be considered is the difficulty and high costs of the technology, used nowadays, to transport frozen and cooled cargo, generically names reefer. This led the logistic community to search for alternatives that minimized costs and maximized profits. The market for frozen and cooled cargo has been increasing dramatically in emerging countries, such Brazil and China, and those countries don’t own effective methods to evacuate and store the production of perishable goods, creating logistics bottlenecks. Comparatively the proposed technology is more ecologically correct, because uses recycle CO2, which would be emitted to the atmosphere, in addition to that it doesn’t use electrical power in its application. Studies corroborated that this technology is economically feasible, for the fact of being cheaper and is a bactericide agent, joining to the legislation related to food security.

Keywords: Transportation, cryogenics, carbonic dioxide

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Cultural Differences in Environmental Behavior and its Antecedents: Comparative Analysis between University Students


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of this work is to make a comparison of the ecological behavior of University students from two regions in different contexts: Bahia (Brazil) and the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (Spain). In this regard, 347 surveys from the Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) and 456 surveys of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) are analyzed. College students are a study collective especially interesting for their role as future decision-makers. It is intended to emphasize the educational aspect, analyzing the role that environmental knowledge exerts in the development of pro-environmental

Keywords: Education, sustainability, pro-environmental behaviour, international comparison

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


D - E

Data Envelopment Analysis in the Sustainability Context - a Study of Brazilian Electricity Sector by Using Global Reporting Initiative Indicators


Abstract: A set of stakeholders (customers, employees, suppliers, public authorities, investors and others) pursuing different economic, environmental, and social interests determines the performance of an organization. In an effort to understand the corporate sustainability performance, this research focuses an analysis of sustainability indicators published in the reports of Global Reporting Initiative, disclosed by 24 Brazilian electricity sector in 2012. Indicators were identified and analyzed following: (i) a communication of economic, environmental, and social performance; and (ii) efficiency determined through the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The results indicate that disclosures are often incomplete, and lack a pattern for similar indicators. Based on DEA, there is no direct relationship between economic value generated and distributed and efficiency, given that there are efficient large-scale hydroelectric plants and medium. In general, partial results are consistent with the conceptual assumptions that informal systems of enterprises promote sustainability, but their formal systems apparently have a very traditional focus on financial performance.

Keywords: Global Reporting Initiative, Data Envelopment Analysis, Triple Bottom Line, Brazilian electricity

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Decisions and Procedures to Cleaner Production Concerning on Liquid Effluents Assessment

A. J. G. Santos (Anhembi Morumbi University), M. B. Nisti (IPEN)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper describes a study for cleaner production liquid effluent assessment. The radioisotope Tritium (3H), generated in the routine operation plant was stored in a 300m3 capacity tank. The tank flow rate exit was estimated as 10.9 ± 0.9 m3.h-1 for liquid controlled dispenser. The Tritium, potential pollutant was used as radiotracer for estimate the dilution factor liquid effluent. A planned release for stored effluent tank was carried-out. Simultaneously it was made sampling upstream of the storage tank discharge point, monitoring the tritium concentration in the mix sewerage system point. The initial concentration of the 3H was determined as 56881±3255 Bq L-1. The estimated dilution factor for the aqueous effluent, in the discharge point E1 was of 4.3 and 7.4 respectively relative to two consecutive days of planned release and diluted effluents sampling. The developed methodology was rapid and without additional environmental or monetary costs, being able to use in industry, mining, milling, agriculture and others human production field. As the used radiotracer Tritium is already existent routinely in the effluent, doesn't increment radioisotope concentrations into sewage and environment, the goal of cleaner production practices and procedures.

Keywords: Liquid effluent, environmental assessment, radiotracer, tracer, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Decision Criteria for the Implementation of Cleaner Production


4th International Workshop

Abstract: In the last three decades, but specifically after the conference ECO-92 (Rio-92) emerged a lively discussion around the business world, on alternatives to improve organizational performance with a focus on sustainability, with an explicit objective to minimize the environmental impacts caused by production systems. The use of environmental practices has become a key strategy to achieve these great goals. Among the alternatives are the methodologies of Cleaner Production (CP), which integrates a technology strategy, economic and environmental processes/products in order to increase efficiency in the use of inputs and raw materials, by reducing waste, not generation, minimization or recycling of waste generated, providing economic and environmental benefits for society and organizations. This study aims to analyze the critical success factors of CP, found in five medium and large southern Brazil, as well as identifies organizational performance as a result of CP. The methodology used in this research is qualitative, scoped multiple case study conducted through semi-structured interviews and content analysis. The key contribution of this study is to develop a qualitative analysis of companies of varying sizes, using a model of critical factors, presenting an option to the academic and business analytics implementation of CP. Among the results of this research identified that companies that have deployed CP have different characteristics, with different levels of maturity, however there is an improvement in the performance of the five companies due to CP.

Keywords: Cleaner production, environmental sustainability, decision criteria, organizational performance.


Decrease Environmental Impact in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing Process

Givaildo Alencar Costa (Tecnel Eletrônica)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Due to the huge technological development and globalization phenomenon, Brazilian society was pushed towards new alternatives in order to maintain competitiveness on a global market. One possible alternative is the use of standardization, especially ISO 9000, ISO 14000 and IEC standards. However, Brazilian market is far from the international scenario and that causes several losses on local and global market share. Nonetheless this situation can be reverting by the adoption of Quality as a tool and also providing small changes on the entrepreneurship attitudes. Therefore, that is the most important characteristic of standardization. This report shows preliminary results regarding the benefits acquired with the standardization, for process, project, product, service, etc., if the target is not only economical benefits but also environmental protection. The methodology used was the case study. The process evaluated was Printed circuit board, single-face. The improvements achieved with this case study showed: a)significant environmental impact reduction, with less water and energy consumption; b)process efficiency increase; c)less raw material losses; d)less waste formation. Thus, a standardized process is useful for several stakeholders; it is a way to increase security for stock brokers, clients and society in general. It is clearly a way to increase revenues because it is a way to diminish costs, to improve technological skills ant to decrease environmental impact.

Keywords: Circuit, PCB, environmental, standards and process

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Design of Cleaner Production Frameworks: an Operational Tool for Sustainable Transition

KHALILI, N. R. (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA); ROA-GUTIÉRREZ, F.; CHÁVES-ABARCA, R.; JAUBERT-SOLANO, W.; VALERIO-VINDAS, J. J. (Technological Institute of Costa Rica, Costa Rica)

Abstract: Growing out of macroeconomic agenda, streamlined resource efficient cleaner production guidelines emphasizes more than ever on the importance of organizational sustainability.The cohesion between resource efficient cleaner production and social and environmental responsibility policies also suggests that if institutionalized, cleaner production guidelines rooted in the concepts and depositions of sustainability couldresult in development of strategic managerial frameworks with micro and macroeconomic benefits. Appropriately, and in support of such principle, this paper suggests development of an interconnected managerial framework that can translate general principles of sustainability into formulation of the resource efficient cleaner production guidelines. The applicability of theproposed approach was tested in a pilot study in Costa Rica. While emphasizing on the importance of the local policies and perceptions of the internal and external stakeholders, results highlighted the need for institutionalization and customization of the frameworks according to organizational type, size, culture, capability, capacity and location. Although universal, the proposed framework could be specifically instrumental to the developing nations aiming at a sustainable transition.

Keywords: Sustainable development goals(SD), Sustainable transition, Corporate social responsibility (CSR), Cleaner production (CP), Costa Rica.

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Design Methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Ethanol Fuel by CML 2000 with SimaPRO

I. D. Zapparoli (UEL), S. S. da Silva (UEM)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of research is to study through life cycle assessment (LCA) economic and environmental aspects related to the production of fuel ethanol from sugarcane, fuel be auditable environmental improvements during its lifecycle and be forward alternative to fossil fuels is of great strategic importance for Brazil. The methodological framework is based on the recommendations of series ISO 14040 and CML method is used in 2000, life cycle assessment, identifying impacts the following categories: climate change; destruction of the ozone layer; acidification; eutrophication; ecotoxicity of freshwaters and human toxicity. This research identify the environmental impacts at each stage of the lifecycle of ethanol fuel, can contribute to the debate on the new forms of action of the State and of the challenges and market prospects for the sugar-alcohol sector, after the deregulation of agroindustry, seeking a better economic and environmental efficiency.

Keywords: Methodology, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), fuel ethanol, CML 2000, agroindustry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Detailed Evaluation of Cleaner Production in a Red Ceramic Industry in the State of Paraíba

L. R. Porto; E. P. de Almeida (CEPIS-PB); C. Buser (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz - Switzerland); A. F. F. Queiroga; E. M. M. A. Nóbrega; T. C. B. Pereira (CEPIS-PB)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This paper is based in technical, economic and environmental strategies application integrated to process and products from a red ceramic industry with the objective to increase the efficiency in the use of raw materials, water and energy, through reduction, no generation or recycling of wastes and emissions generated, with environmental, economic and occupational health benefits. The Cleaner Production program aims to identify actions of ecoefficiency in the areas, process and machines of companies, a way of to bring economic results, to reduce the consumption of resources and to prevent environmental impacts generated from inputs of process. Based in this, was developed a evaluation methodology by University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland to determination of the potentials through the QuickScan Report and the software EcoInspector. After this was made the quantification of inputs and outputs and the mass and energy flow, identification of opportunities to improvement of performance through research, presentation of the best alternatives of technical, economic and environmental feasibility. The stages of the productive process that had been detached as eventual potentials of Cleaner Production had been: preparation of the raw material, drawing, cuting and burning. It was identified a total of 28 options, had been 01 option rejected, 21 options of immediate implementation, 06 feasible options, 03 options was implemented by company, being: to cover the clay with canvas, to use cut wire of 0,9 mm and levelling of drying área.   One of the options of immediate implementation was to arrange a employee to clean the clay, this option presented a economics in electric energy, and an increase in the production. After the approval of the options by the company, was mounted an action plan in order to certify and to follow the implementation of them.

Keywords: Red ceramic, cleaner production, energetic efficiency, ecoeficiency

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Determination of Moisture in Tobacco Leaves through The Microwave Technique


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The determination of moisture in various industrial processes is very important to monitoring the quality of raw materials and products. As a result, a technique fast, cheap and reliable for determining moisture is an object of interest to all companies. In the tobacco industry, traditionally, determines humidity by the mass loss, a destructive technique, slow and random sampling. This study aims to validate the technique for determination of moisture in processed tobacco leaves through the use of microwaves. The microwave moisture determination technique is fast, easy, low-cost analysis, earnings stability and able to analyze 100% of the population, so this study is justified by the importance in seeking improvements in the process. Through the variance analysis as statistical tools for analysis of results these two techniques, weight loss and microwave, was compared and verified that there is a low dispersion of the measured values and similarity in the measures. So, in addition to again in time and preservation of samples, there is no waste generation with the microwave technique, when compared to the technique of mass loss, demonstrating environmental gains beyond the technical gains, also showing up as reliable as conventional methodology for moisture content determination.

Keywords: Microwave, tobacco moisture, techniques for moisture determination

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Determination of Relevant Environmental Impacts and Benefits Caused by Balbina Hydropower at Amazon

D. Wittmann; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: While Brazil exploits less than 30% of its hydrological potential to generate electricity, the hydroelectric generation system operates near the limit of capacity. In parallel, more than 10 projects, totaling approximately 2,500 MW (megawats), are hampered, some of them about from 20 years, without generating electricity, due to environmental issues. There is uncertainty in terms of new investments, and controversy about the losses and environmental benefits, this the central point. This study engages in determining relevant environmental impacts and benefits beyond the generation itself, using the methodology of accounting emergy (Odum, 1996), which based on the ecology, thermodynamics and systems analysis, is able to assemble in a common unit (joules of solar energy), values both physical, as social and economic. For both is studied the hydropower Balbina, in the Amazon, selected, first by being considered the worst Brazilian example in terms of environmental performance, second because the northern region of Brazil is that most shows potential to be exploited. This paper presents that Balbina shows favorable environmental sustainability. There are apparent signs, but left doubts about the beneficial role socio-economic. The most representative environmental damage is represented by the emission of gases causing the greenhouse effect, CO2 (carbon dioxide) and CH4 (methane), mainly due to the extensive and shallow flooded area, and their inappropriate preparation for flooding, in combination with the natural and complex climatic condition of the Amazon.

Keywords: Production of hydroelectric power, emergy, environmental sustainability, Balbina hydropower, Amazon

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Determination of the Amount of Emitted Carbon Dioxide Due to the Construction and Operation of Refrigerating Cycle with Ammonia Vapor Compression and Evaporation Temperature between -30ºC and 5ºC

P. S. G. Carvalho (UNIP), M. M. Pimenta (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The refrigerating cycle for ammonia vapor compression has its use very spread out, because it can generate very low temperatures and operate in some temperatures of evaporation. The present work aims at to quantify the emitted carbon dioxide due to the construction and operation of a refrigerating cycle for ammonia vapor compression that operates using the hydroelectricity. As Costa (1982) the temperature of evaporation must be enters 5 ºC the 15 ºC inferior to the cooled environment. It adopts the case more criticize considering environment cooled in the -20 band ºC the 5 ºC implying temperature of evaporation between -35 ºC and -10 ºC. In the development of this article it will be used the computational program Engineering Equation Solver (E.E.S) and methodology developed for the authors.

Keywords: Refrigerating systems, conservation of fish, refrigerating cycle for absorption

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Determining CO2 emissions and storages in a commercial bamboo plantation

L. Ghelmandi Netto; B. F. Giannetti; C. M. V. B. Almeida; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This work aims to quantify emissions and storages of CO2 in a commercial bamboo plantation using a CO2 eq. mass balance. The species of bamboo examined in this work is Bambusa vulgaris, the main bamboo species cultivated in northeastern Brazil. Labor inputs were not taken into account as they do not emit CO2. In both scenerys considered in this study to perform the CO2 balance, and the CO2 captured in the bamboo plantation exceeded that emited.

Keywords: CO2, commercial bamboo plantation, CO2 emissions and storages

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Developing a Conceptual Framework for Assessing Printing Companies Operations Sustainability Pratices


4th International Workshop

Abstract: There is a worldwide concern with sustainable development and this has compelled organizations to modify their management systems and operations design in order to fit to this new environment. To have a sustainable business and operations means to be economically viable, to reduce or even not generate waste, to conserve energy and natural resources, to be safe to workers, communities and consumers, to improve quality of life, and to share value. It is noticed that Brazilian printing companies understand these demands and they are promoting changes in their strategy, business models and operations systems. The main goal of this research is to propose a conceptual framework for organizing sustainability practices in printing industry companies’ operations. It is intended to answer the following research question, based on manufacturing operations analysis: Does the printing industry runs its operations in a sustainable way? Observing standards practices for economic, environmental and social sustainable aspects. It was conducted a literature review and also it was recovered secondary data from governmental institutes and agencies as well from printing companies associations. These elements helped in characterizing the context, structures and processes for designing, implementing and managing printing enterprise sustainable operations. The proposed framework intends to contain best practices for developing a sustainable operation and to be used for auditing and normative purposes. This will allow companies to adapt their operations models and systems in order to create a real sustainable enterprise.

Keywords: Printing industry, operations management, sustainability, sustainable development, sustainable manufacturing

[Abstract] [Paper]


Development of a Environmental Methodology for Solid Wastes Management in Higher Education Institutions

C. R. Vaz; A. B. Fagundes; P. C. Machado; I. L. Oliveira; J. L. Kovaleski (UTFPR)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This work aimed to present a critical analysis about the development of a methodology for solid wastes management in Higher Education Institutions (HEI). Researches were undertaken on technical rules and on the specialized literature on Environment over the last ten years. In a comparative study between methodologies ISO 14001 and Cleaner Production (CP), it was verified convergent and complementary points to its implantation in a HEI. It was done a case study at UTFPR-PG, where factors like environmental aspects and impacts, initial environmental diagnostic, purposes and targets and the way the campus fits with CP were surveyed and analyzed. It was possible to conclude that the application of ISO 14001 altogether with CP can effectively contribute for an improvement in the competitivity of HEI´s and magnify the vision about the environmental tools application in this sector.

Keywords: Higher education institution, cleaner production, ISO 14001

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Development of Actions of Socio Environmental University Responsibility in Semiarid Northeastern

G. D. Silva, Y. M. Paz, C. M. C. Rocha, A, L. Jacob , S. G. El-Deir (UFRPE)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Socio Environmental Responsibility University (RSU) is the way universities relate to the environment and stakeholders. This term can be given to actions taken by other social groups, including Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC). The capacity that the university has to put into practice the knowledge, through processes such as management, teaching, research and extension, giving answers to the academic community and the country itself, featuring the RSC. The Environmental Management Group in Pernambuco (Gampe), Department of Rural Technology (DTR), Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE) developed actions in the community of Poço da Cruz, Municipality of Ibimirim – PE. The RSC activities were structured by the group through three distinct actions, such as Easter, Christmas and Reading Solidary. The projects were based on the methodology of action research, given this community to be under focus in several research projects and extension UFRPE. This initiative represents a mutual gain for the university and society, as humanize the process of teaching and learning, raises the social commitment of the student, creates greater connection with the various segments of society and contextualizes the academic knowledge. The communities of the semiarid region of Pernambuco are characterized as places of lower Human Development Index in Brazil, to the detriment of the lack of basic infrastructure, as a poverty state of the population, privation and total absence of the presence of public power, as concerning the structure of the minimum conditions for a life with human dignity. This way UFRPE and GAMPE Group has been developing projects and actions that can subsidize the empowerment of this community in endogenous processes of local development. In this sense the present paper aims to portray the actions of RSU and discuss the results derived from these activities.

Keywords: University extension, semi-arid, rural communities

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Development of Catalytic Materials for Degradation Photoelectrochemical of Pesticides

G. R. P. Malpass (UFTM), S. Aquino Neto, A. R. de Andrade, A. L. T. Fornazari, D. W. Miwa, A. J. Motheo (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The application of electrochemical methods is an interesting and clean alternative for the abatement of toxic organic pollutants. The present communication details the study of the synthesis of electrode materials of nominal composition Ti/PbXTi1-XO2 (onde X = 0; 0.05; 0.10; 0.20 e 0.30) and their subsequent use as electrodes for degradation of organic pollutants using both electrochemical and photo-assisted electrochemical techniques. The results obtained demonstrate that the materials produced are interesting from the point of view of organic removal. The application of simultaneous UV radiation with electrical current was capable of removing greater amounts of the organic load (32% in under 1 h) than the purely electrochemical technique alone.

Keywords: Photo-assisted electrochemical degradation, formaldehyde, pollution control

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Development of Environmentally Friendly Products: Case Study in a Germany Company Producer of Household Appliances

J. B. Fonseca, F. C. A. Santos (USP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation into the development of environmentally friendly products: case study in a Germany company producer of dishwashers. Concepts of eco-design and life cycle analysis are shown in the literature review. The case study uses these concepts to investigate the dishwashers produced by the German multinational company called Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte. Historical quantitative analysis of water and electrical energy consumption from the first versions of dishwashers until the most modern ones, as well as the systems which were implemented and improved in order to achieve the targets linked to the reduction of water and electrical energy consumption, are presented.

Keywords: Product development process, life cycle analysis, case study

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Development of Industry Sugarcane in Mato Grosso do Sul State: Impacts and Benefits of the Production Energy from Cane Sugar Farming


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This study analysis the production of the bioenergy from the benefits and environmental and social impacts of the supply chain of sugar and ethanol. Thus, it was analyzed papers and data about scenario of Mato Grosso do Sul State, considered the fifth largest producer of ethanol from Brazil. Data are showed regarding the production and productive process discussed from the viewpoint of production cleaner. The research results showed that the benefits have been measured and presented as a great alternative to fossil fuel, however has not the systems and data that measure the environmental impact of these plants in Mato Grosso do Sul State, mainly regarding the heating region.

Keywords: Sugarcane industry. Bioenergy. Clean Production. Environmental Impacts.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Development of Pro Active Sustainable Positions in Activities of Ambient Management in Busca of the Profitability. Application and Development of the Concept of Cleaner Production in Company of Casting in the Rio Grande Do Sul

M. C. Nehme; C. Quissini; J. Slovinscki (UCS)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This article searches to identify sustainable model, developed through a system of ambient management pro-asset, implanted in organization, with polluting potential, that it looks to remain itself competitive, in emergent markets and extremely disputed. To ahead recognize the new positions of these questions and as the organization will be able to extend its participation in the market, as much as for the visibility before the most varied customers, as well as in its adaptations to the costs demanded in this dispute. To detach the importance of the incorporation of the productive chain in the analysis of ambient costs that will be able to as well as increase the value generated for the shareholder being based on not the generation of wastefulnesses and residues in the productive process in the returns come of the one powders-sell and powders-consume. This article tells to the results gotten with the application of active systems of ambient management pro in company of the branch of casting in the state of the Rio Grande do Sul, where by means of the use of sustainable tools the concepts of PmaisL had been applied.

Keywords: Sustainable development, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Development of Public Policies that Enhance the Reuse of Materials in the Brazilian Industry


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This study analyses the definition of public policies designed to encourage the reuse of waste. A multiple case study with nine Brazilian industries was performed. All these companies reuse materials in their production process, or have the potential to do so. The follow ing elements were investigated: types of public policies, market and technology. The question that guided the research was: How to define public policies that lead to sustainability without compromising the public funds? The findings showed that the penalties imposed by the government can induce the reuse of materials. However, the low market value of the waste, the absence of a technology to reuse the material, the reduced availability or the high geographical dispersion of the waste can reduce the efficiency of those penalties. In such cases, the policy makers must analyze the waste market value and the type of technology available. For some materials the combination of these elements is enough to induce the reuse of materials. Public funds or policies are not required in such case. High sums of public resources may be needed to finance the development of new technology. But such public investment is restricted to a short period of time. Other materials only require public funds to support the workers that collect and segregate the materials. The support to these workers may be more effective than the granting of economic benefits to companies that reuse the waste. Such support may save a huge amount of public resources, as well as generate a more decent income for several poor people in Brazil.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, public policies, industrial waste.


Diagnosis of Civil Construction Waste Generation in the Toledo-PR City - Analysis from 2005 to 2010


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The current profile of Brazilian economic development, based on various production processes, intense industrial activity and population growth are some of the factors responsible for the rising generation of municipal solid waste. In the present scenario of growth of the Brazilian economy, the construction industry is one of the activities with the greatest growth potential and at the same time constitutes a sector with significant volume of waste generation, with serious implications for the environment. In this context, the study aimed to present the results of diagnostic generation of construction waste (RCC) in the City of Toledo-PR, for the period 2005 to 2010. The methodology included four stages, which are: development of a database with the evolution of films of the buildings in the city of Toledo-PR, during the years 2005 to 2010; estimate the potential of RCC according to the types construction (renovation, expansion and new), diagnosis of the current collection system in the city of Toledo RCC-PR, and finally the processing and systematization of the results by means of thematic maps and charts. As an example for the year 2010, the results showed a generation of 31 178 (t / yr) for RCC from the new buildings, 1815 (t / yr) for reforms and 3217 t / year for expansions. Thus the total RCC generated in the city of Toledo was 36,210 t / year. The topic maps show the total generation of RCC in each district during the years 2005 to 2010 and the central area is the neighborhood with the highest waste generation, followed by buildings located in neighborhoods Workers' Village, Coopagro Garden, Garden and Porto Alegre. Finally, a comparison was made between the total waste generated (36,210 t / in 2010) and total RCC collected (average 76.6% of total). Thus concludes that it is necessary to optimize the management system of RCC, as the research on the characteristics of the throne RCC shows that over 90% of these residues are likely to use, a situation which is not the case in the city of Toledo-PR.

Keywords: Civil Construction Waste (RCC), RCC Estimate Generation, Collection of RCCs, Toledo-PR

[Abstract] [Paper]


Diagnosis of the Cleaner Production in Amazonas State

B. G. Pereira (INPA); I. R. Neto (UCB); K. Yuyama (INPA); H. G. Pereira (Kali-Umwelttechnik GmbH Sondershausen - Germany) ; C. L. P. de Matos (SEBRAE-AM)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This study, shows a diagnosis of the application of the Cleaner Production (CP) in Amazonas State. From the analysis of reports from the Nucleus of Clean Production (NPL) and open interviews with managers and consultants of the NPL, was verified that the program generates economic, environment advantages, of health and occupational security. The results demonstrate that, in Amazonas, the culture of Clean Production is spread out by SEBRAE/AM for the NPL, since 2003. Up to 2006, 25 companies had implemented the CP program, and these majority is classified as micron and small companies. Twenty and four of these companies are located in Manaus and take care of the local market. Almost all of these companies are finds in the commerce segment, the representation type and also in the segment of the transformation industry. 75% of the companies who had applied the PmaisL are part of the Productive Group of Oil and Gas in Amazonas. About the implemented techniques of PmaisL, 72% represent the adoption of good practical, including operational and management action, with improvements in the administrative system, storage, election and preservation of the solid residues and elimination of obsolete materials that can be recyclable. These practical had reduced residues and normally have being implemented with low cost and Sebrae-AM subsidy at Technological Consulting Program. In this case, was considered ambient regulation (fines, penalties, etc.), searching the conformity of these companies, to prevent serious cuts in the profitability caused by harmful actions to the environment. The work conditions improvements, like small reforms, implantation of security systems and selective collection and equipment purchase are some examples of these applied technological measures (22%). Another example observed was the care with health and occupational security. Was observed that one of the biggest challenges of the involved companies is the continuous improvement of the processes from the program of PmaisL, since is a program that does not certifies yet. The PmaisL concepts and potentials are obscure for the most part of the society and government; in this case it is being necessary to build a new politics for spreading and use of Cleaner Production (CP), as well as application in micron and small companies. This will generate for the companies one better strategical vision front environment questions and consumer requirements.

Keywords: Environment management, residues reduction, good practical, companies, Amazonas

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Diagnosis of the Forest Fragmentation on Watershed Córrego Poço Grande, Ouro Verde do Oeste City, Paraná

D. Mondardo; A. Uhlein; D. D. Castagnara; F. G. Klein; A. Feiden; C. C. Meinerz (UNIOESTE)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The forest fragmentation resulting from the antropic action threatens the biodiversity of ecosystems, be for the extinction or record reduction in the present genetic diversity in the fragments. The great devastation in search of new arable areas and of more space for growth of the cities has result in a mosaic of forest fragments an every chance minor and more isolated, still hindering more the conservation of the genetic and biological diversity of the natural ecosystems. The environmental adaptation of the rural properties proposed by the Project Management by Basins, integral of the Program Cultivating Good Water, idealized by Itaipu Binacional together with several partners, it seeks, besides other, the reduction in the impacts caused by the forest fragmentation, through the restoration of the areas of permanent preservation and of missing reservation legal. The present work evaluated the existent forest fragmentation in the Córrego Poço Grande watershed, municipal district of Ouro Verde do Oeste, Paraná. The microbacia was object of work of the Project Management for Basins, where the rising was accomplished to field of the cadastral data, the use of the soil, environmental liabilities and georeferencing of the rural properties. The data were processed for elaboration of the cartographic maps of the properties, map of environmental diagnosis and project of environmental control, and the mosaic of use of the current soil and proposed after environmental adaptation of the watershed. Through the formed mosaics the number and the size of the existent forest fragments were quantified in the watershed, the same ones were characterized as of area of permanent preservation or of legal reservation, and classified in agreement with the busy area. 65 forest fragments were observed in the watershed, and legal reservation's areas came more fragmented, totaling 60 fragments. Most of the fragments was considered small and very small, could be the bottle mouth for the preservation and survival of the fauna and flora native of the area. The presence can be observed of only three fragments considered exceptional, whose areas would supply conditions for the development of a lot of species, tends conditions of maintaining the natural biodiversity of the area.

Keywords: Area of constant preservation, forest fragmentation, legal reserve

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Diagnostic of Cleaner Production in the Industrial Sector


(University Rafael Landívar, Guatemala) 

Abstract: This report sets out the findings, recommendations and benefits expected for the industry, through developed CP studies, at eleven companies from different industrial sectors, made by Engineering Students from Rafael Landívar University, to strengthen their knowledge and skills in CP applied to their discipline and increase the adoption of best practices in cleaner production and sustainable development, participating at small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMES). The activity is part of theprogram Academic Social Responsibility (RSA), and the research areasof the Faculty: productivity, energy, environment and food security. This should apply the students’ knowledge acquired during their career, evaluating and proposing improvements with solutions focused on cleaner production and sustainable development in different companies, as well as recommendations to be followed in the future for its implementation and/or continuity. The authors acknowledge the support of the "Pathways to Cleaner Production in the Americas" project in development of CPactivities at University. This initiative is funded by the U.S. Department of State, under the "Pathways to Prosperity in the Americas" initiative, through Higher Education for Development (HED). The authors are solely responsible for the contents of the article. The development of this activity was supported by the technical cooperation agreement signed between the University (URL) and the Guatemalan Cleaner Production Center (CGPML), with the aim of promoting and facilitating the implementation of better practices for cleaner production and sustainable development. The students participated in CP training activities and sustainable development. Diagnosis gavethe participants opportunities for production improvement, achieving integration between the industry and Academia.

Keywords: Academic social responsibility, cleaner production, sustainable, small and medium enterprises development, production practices and environmental performance

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]


Diagnostic of the Domestic Effluents Management from Paraná State Rural Area


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Environmental awareness in rural areas advances in relation to the preservation of water quality and their reservoirs, but the management of domestic effluents considers treatment and the appropriate final disposal moves at a slow rate across the country. In this way, the study aims to diagnose the conditions of the rural sanitation in Paraná State and the rural areas of Brazil. The data contained in IBGE, IPARDES, Water Institute of Paraná and OMS database was collected. The results showed that: a) in the Paraná State 1.531.834 inhabitants live in rural areas (in approximately 204.000 residences); b) the average of daily water consumption (for domestic use) is 326.000 m³; c) the domestic effluents generation potential is 261 mil m³ day-1; and d) the Rio Iguaçu watershed stands out among the others in all analyzed aspects, because it has the highest population density in rural areas, with approximately 690.000 inhabitants and the consequence of this is the higher water consumption (103 thousand m³ day-1) and the higher generator of domestic effluent (82.710 m³ day-1). Nationally it was found that 16% of the Brazilian population live in rural areas and that 75% of the rural residences use inadequate domestic effluents treatment and disposal methods. In Paraná State, only 19.35% of rural residences have a sewage collection system or septic tanks. On the other hand, the study indicated as one of the critical factors the lack of methods, processes and conventional technologies specific for domestic effluents treatment in rural areas.

Keywords: Domestic effluents, rural sanitation, Paraná State rural areas.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Disrupting the Business of Producing Automobiles: Technologies for Cleaner Production

C. Zapata (ESRC BRASS Centre - Cardiff University & University of California - UK); P. Nieuwenhuis (ESRC BRASS Centre - Cardiff University - UK)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The concept of innovation has been used in a wide range of contexts and the theoretical development has proven to be extremely valuable to provide important insights into intra-market competition and strategy. The automotive industry offers a fertile terrain for the progress of the uncompleted theory building process of innovation, especially with the introduction of alternative fuels and alternative powertrain technologies.  The application of these concepts is fundamental for the sustainability of the entire industry. This paper will look at the concept of innovation in the context of the modern automotive industry focusing on the notion of regulatory innovation of alternative fuels and alternative powertrain. For the purpose of analysing this issue, special attention will be given to the concepts of radical and incremental innovation, which will be applied to existing alternative fuels and alternative powertrain technologies, including hybrids, biofuels and hydrogen power.  The article will explore these three categories looking at representative case studies: the Brazilian ethanol experience with biofuels, the development of the Toyota hybrid vehicle and the technological development of hydrogen fuel cells. 

Keywords: Automotive industry, alternative technologies, innovation, biofuels, hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Dissemination of Cleaner Production Tool In the Brazilian Public Universities

Flávia Pinheiro Faria; E. B. A. V. Pacheco (UFRJ)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The chemical industry can be considered one of the most responsible for dispersion of toxic substances in the environment, due to nature and to the amount of residues generated along its productive processes.  It is not enough to attenuate and control the pollutants of this industry, but prevent or minimize their generating source.  Cleaner Production (CP) is a good tool for environment management, mainly in small and medium-sized companies which are the majority in Brazil, and it is considered an option for economical and environmental benefits, which can be tangibles and intangibles.  Case studies in the industrial sector are being carried out by universities or governmental institutions, observing that independently of the branch of performance of the companies, the chemical processes are the ones that receive greater attention.  A bibliographical research was done to verify the dissemination of the concept of CP in Brazilian universities through academic works. These studies showed that entrepreneurs’ awareness have been improved in relation to the environmental preservation.  The digital libraries of the public universities were accessed, concluding that Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Bahia states concentrated 63% of the documents found up to 2006.  The majority case studies were developed in chemical companies and they were from master dissertations.

Keywords: Cleaner production, chemical industry, Brazilian universities, case studies

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Dynamic Model for Evaluation of Sustainability of Brazilian Ethanol Production: Elements for Modeling


Abstract: System dynamics is an approach to analyze the behavior of complex systems, such as the productive chains, strictly considering the inherent characteristics. This approach is based on mathematical concepts of nonlinear processes developed in mathematics and physics and consolidated in engineering. The concepts inherent in this approach assists in creating a mathematical model which represents a production chain by using computer simulation. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present the formalization of the dynamic model of assessing the sustainability of Brazilian ethanol production, its borders (external environment) and the scenarios needed for a deeper understanding of relation of cause and effect, causal loops and diagrams of flows and stocks as a result of the awareness stage, with regard to understanding the problems involved, the survey methodology known as design science.

Keywords: ethanol, system dynamics, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper]

Early Stage Investment and Cost Calculation Methodologies for NOx Reduction Measures in Large Combustion Plants

MAYER, C.; MUELLER, A.-K.; FROEHLING, M.; SCHULTMANN, F. (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) 

Abstract: The worldwide energy demand, especially in terms of electricity, has been rising significantly over the last few years. Even though the total share of renewable energy supply is growing, the global amount of fossil energy is still not declining. To lower at least the environmental effects of fossil fuel burning, the demand for emission reduction measures, especially in combustion plants, is becoming more prominent, in industrial as well as in emerging countries. The various implemented technologies differ in many technical and economic parameters. Consequently, their suitability depends on the specific application. A detailed estimation of investments and operating costs is an essential basis for plant operators in the early stages of an investment decision. Furthermore, policies may massively influence a national energy market and the depending industries by defining thresholds for emission levels and other technical parameters. In industrial countries detailed simulation models are used for this purpose on a micro- and macroeconomic level. In less developed regions, however, information on costs of large combustion plants and especially of emission reduction measures is scarce. Nevertheless, policy makers have a deep interest in methods for assessing possible effects of their decisions. The Task Force on Techno-Economic Issues (TFTEI, formerly known as EGTEI – Expert Group on Techno-Economic Issues), being part of the UNECE/CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/ Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution) has therefore been working on a problem oriented cost and investment estimation tool for fossil fueled large combustion plants for the last few years. Its goal is to support policy makers to implement reasonable environmental protection standards by evaluating the microeconomic effects thereof. But TFTEI is not the only group working on that issue, other methods are in use as well, like (amongst others) the one published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2003. The aim of this paper is to compare the two methods and show the specific advantages and disadvantages for cost and investment calculation of secondary NOx reduction measures. The two methods shall be introduced in detail, followed by a quantitative and qualitative comparison of the calculation results with regard to the usability of each method in the given context. The TFTEI method is based on specific investments of established plants that can be adapted to the needs of the considered application. The EPA method consists of a more detailed technical description of the process, which is then translated into investments and costs components via empirically determined conversion factors. Subsequently, the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies in the context of a cost calculation tool such as the one developed by TFTEI are discussed with a special focus on the characteristics and needs of the target group. The main outcome is that a calibration of the EPA method seems reasonable, as the calculation results are a lot lower than those of the TFTEI method, but within a steady proportion. Due to a lack of data, however, a calibration is not feasible at the current state. Further surveys are recommended to improve the data base and to reduce the uncertainty of the results.

Keywords: Techno-economic assessment, Emission Reduction, Emerging Countries, SCR, SNCR

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Eco Industrial Park Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Paracambi EIP

L. B. E. Veiga; A. Magrini (UFRJ)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents the Eco Industrial Park (EIP) concept, an environmental management tool that is being spread in many nations around the world as an industrial model that can reconcile the three “Es” of sustainability – environment, social equity and economic efficiency - as it reorganizes industrial practices and activities in order to meet sustainable development goals. Although being an emerging concept, there are many EIP projects being implemented, and many of them already operating in North America, Europe, Asia, Central and South America, including in Rio de Janeiro State (RJS), Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro State (RJS) industrialization has brought wealth and development; however it has also brought many externalities. One of these externalities is the high level of industrial concentration, resulting in increasingly urban concentration, the damage and destruction of many environmental areas and in a high level of soil, air and water pollution. This unsustainable economic growth has increased resource consumption and environmental degradation.  RJS government, looking for possible solutions to the disorderly industrial settlement and for possible ways to minimize waste management problems, inspired by international experiences, began to consider EIPs as a possible strategic planning alternative to achieve sustainable development.  The EIP Program (Programa Rio-Ecopolo) was launched in RJS through the State Decree 31.339/2002, as a mean to foster sustainable development and to ameliorate the environmental, economic and social distress caused by unplanned urban and industrial development.  The objective of this paper is to present the development of EIPs in RJS focusing on Paracambi EIP, located in Paracambi municipality, the only pilot project to be developed in a greenfield site.  This paper also presents a methodology developed for planning Paracambi EIP. This methodology was developed based on studies and projects developed worldwide.  The United States Environmental Protection Agency US-EPA software Facility Synergy Tool (FaST) was a major tool used in order to plan this EIP. Today, five years after the EIP Program was launched, unlike what was expected, collaboration among the actors involved (government, public agencies, private institutions, industries, communities and university) has not evolved the way it should have.  Changes in political administration interrupted public sector participation. From what has been accomplished to date, EIPs are at an early stage of development. We argue that RJS has the potential to create a sustainable industrial system in the near future. However, the continuity of EIPs will only be successful if we have a convergence of the actors’ interests.

Keywords: Eco Industrial Parks, sustainable development, industrial ecology, Paracambi Municipality

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Ecodesign and Cleaner Production: Production Inovation at the Furniture Sector

M. G. Farias (UDESC); A. da Silva (Moveis Neumann-SC); R. Langer (UDESC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This article has as objective to demonstrate the importance and the results of the process of integration of the University of the State of Santa Catarina with the business sectors - in special, by means of the companies nets called “Local Productive Arrangements” at Furniture Sector, in the advances of the use of the concept of the Innovation, Ecodesign and Cleaner Production for the endorsement of the Sustainable Regional Development.

Keywords: Cleaner production, innovation, ecodesign, local productive arrangement, furniture sector

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Ecodesign in productive chain of sugar cane: cooperative mobilizations

I. K. Makiya (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The productive chain of sugar-cane presents a strong potential of ecologycally maintainable solutions, in manner to incorporate conquests for a larger number of companies and groups producing of sugar-cane, sugar and alcohol of Brazil. Thus, researches in cane varieties; the Genoma project to identify 50 thousand genes of the cane; the production of biodegradable plastic; creation of the sugar type VVHP (White pollen) that requests less effort in industrial and technology process for using residues of the cane agro-industry in co-generation of electric energy, they are some of the countless conquests obtained by research centers that contributed decisively to the national alcohol cane-sugar segment reaches the world leadership. In that way, public politics, organizations of the first and second sector have been looking for alternatives in a cooperative way for emerging solutions to this segment, based sustentability on the long term, due to future positive perspectives, including programs of alternative sources of energy, as etanol, biodiesel and biomassa; alternative sources of biodegradable packings, and in the ecoefficient re-design of the productive chain as a whole. 

Keywords: Ecodesign, sugar-cane, alternative energy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Ecodesign Integration Models: Systematic Literature Review with a Systemic Focus


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The concept of integration plays a key role in Ecodesign, defined as incorporating environmental aspects with a life cycle perspective into projects and the Product Development Process (PDP) of businesses. Assuming that a broad framework for a comprehensive integration adhering to the principles of innovation management is still missing, this article seeks to make a scientific state of the art of the theme, focusing on published Models. The methodology associates bibliometric techniques and content analysis, based on searches conducted on two databases (Web of Science and Scopus) and several complementary sources giving priority to the primary publications of the Models.The research identified 52 modelsthat were analyzed in depth, comingfrom various types of publications and worldwide geographical origins, predominantly from northern Europe.It was possible to trace a systemic pattern of the Models, using scientific concepts associated with the success factors of innovation management together with principles of environmental sustainability in business.The adopted three levels segmentation (micro, meso and macro) covers the main issues and challenges of the Ecodesign integration in the PDP of business, contributing to the analysis and comparison of the Models.Throughout the scientific literature reported in this paper, a convergence and consolidation of Ecodesign knowledge was initiated, gathering scientific constructs and best practices from various areas. The proposed systemic approach is a promising way to synthesize the main constructs involved in Ecodesign integration and Life Cycle Management, and is a useful step towards the construction of a complete integration Model.

Keywords: Ecodesign, integration, models, systemic, development.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Ecodesign Methods focused on Remanufacturing

D. C. A. Pigosso; E. T. Zanette; A. Guelere Filho; A. R. Ometto (USP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The consumption and production of products throughout its lifecycle is at the origin of the most pollution and resources depletion that our society causes. The environmental impact at the products’ end-of-life can be considerably reduced by the application of remanufacture. Encouraged by environmental legislation, such as the WEEE in Europe, and motivated by aftermarket reasons, the importance of remanufacture industry has increased recently worldwide. Remanufacturing is defined as the transformation of an end-of-life product into a product with an ‘as good as new’ condition. The remanufacturing process includes several stages, among them product disassembly, cleaning and identification of parts, parts recovery, testing and product re-assembly. To successfully implement remanufacturable products, they should had been designed for this purpose previously. Thus, the initial phases of the product development process must consider the aspects of remanufacturing such as disassembly opportunities, facilities and reverse logistics. The consideration of theses aspects can be made by means of Ecodesign, which is a proactive posture of environmental management that, by integrating environmental concern to the product development process, aims to reduce the total environmental impact of products throughout its entire lifecycle, without compromising other important aspects as quality, costs, ergonomics, aesthetics, etc. There are several Ecodesign’ methods that focus on the remanufacturing process and can be successfully applied in order to obtain more sustainable products, minimizing its adverse environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to present some Ecodesign methods which focus on end-of-life strategies, including, among others, remanufacturing. It is important that all end-of-life strategies are related once not all products’ components can be remanufactured. Hence other end-of-life strategies, such as recycling and reuse, should be made possible and viable.

Keywords: Ecodesign, remanufacture, methods

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Eco-Efficiency: A Case Study in a Chemical Industry

H. M. de Pinho; M. N. Catanzano; P. J. C. Candeira (FAENG)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Eco-efficiency is of vital importance for the maintenance of organizations nowadays, not only to maintain an ecologically speech accepted by society, but also because it brings all kinds of benefits. As more companies seek respectability, the better the prospects for growth and environmental integration. Moreover, it is a management tool which main function is the environment preservation. This work addresses questions related to environmental management through a system of eco-efficiency. During the development of this work, a research was conducted at a chemical industry located in a petrochemical pole in Maua city, Sao Paulo State. The methodology was based on a case study, therefore a questionnaire was designed to answer what this organization has done in order to save resources. The results show that this organization has carried out activities related to the topic, although there are great opportunities for improvement in the management system currently applied.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency, management system, environment and sustainable development

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Ecoefficiency in Portuguese WWTP


Abstract: Cleaner Production is a strategy that supports companies on their way towards sustainability by focusing their efforts mainly on the reduction of materials’ and energy’s use, on processes’ improvement, on cycles’ closing and on waste flows’ valorisation or elimination. This approach was used in Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) by considering their running as an industrial process. In a flowchart all the inputs and outputs were identified. Energy was quantified and the associated costs were allocated. Special attention was paid to energy use in the treatment processes and therefore the higher electricity consumptions were measured. In each WWTP the efficiency in the removal of the pollution load was related to the energy consumption. For each WWTP an indicator (Value) relating removal efficiency to cost (or energy consumed) was established and used for benchmarking between the target WWTP. Possibilities, of reduction of materials and energy consumption in the normal functioning of the WWTP, were identified. Other improvement opportunities were detected in what concerns the inputs related to population training and information, namely those related to water savings, internal housing water reclamation and chemicals use.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Sustainable Value, wastewater treatment plant, energy efficiency, eco-efficiency

[Abstract] [Organizational Report]


Eco-industrialism: The Potential for Inclusive Growth with Bio-Plastic Production in Brazil Using Sugarcane Ethanol

P. Wells (Cardiff University-UK), C. Zapata (UNDP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Eco-industrialism embraces the concept of spatially-concentrated and inter-connected industrial activities that collectively are eco-efficient in the use of resources, though not necessarily premised on renewable resources. One area of activity that has potential for renewable eco-industrialism is that of bio-plastics; specifically in this case the production of plastic feedstock from sugarcane ethanol along with downstream products manufactured from bio-plastic feedstock for industrial or consumer markets. Eco-industrialism, in addition, has little to say about the subject of inclusive growth – an important element in the social and economic dimensions of sustainability. Inclusive growth means bringing some of the wealth created by growth to the marginal elements of society. This paper examines the nascent sugarcane ethanol bio-plastic industry in Brazil with a view to understanding the potential of the sector for renewable eco-industrialism in general, and for inclusive growth to mitigate rural poverty in particular. It is concluded that while the sector and the underlying technology is only in the formative stages, there are reasons to suppose that there is potential for inclusive growth and alleviating rural poverty by broadening income flows and reducing income volatility risk to rural areas. The paper explains that the concept of ecoindustrialism has thus far been limited in that it is not based on renewable resources per se. Hence in theoretical terms the paper seeks to explain the significance of two possible developments of the concept: a basis of on renewable resources; and an extension with ‘inclusive growth’. The analysis is grounded in an understanding of contemporary definitions of bio-plastic and why it might be important e.g. in the automotive industry. Information on the technology and scale of production, etc. is used to compare the bio-plastic sector with the mainstream petrochemical plastic sector. We then present a case study of Brazil in which it is shown that an embryonic bio-plastic industry exists, though it is far from being an ecoindustrial cluster. The subsequent analysis argues that there is a strong sustainability basis for developing a Brazilian bio-plastic eco-industrial complex based on sugarcane ethanol, and outlines some potential policy frameworks to further encourage the development of such a sector. It is concluded that there are broad social and economic benefits, such as greater inclusive growth and higher retention of added value within Brazil, alongside the environmental advantages of using sugarcane such as lower carbon emissions. The wider theoretical conclusions are that eco-industrialism based on renewable resources could be the foundation of a new form of materialism in modern society.

Keywords: Inclusive growth, sugarcane ethanol, eco-industrialism, ethanol, Brazil 

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Eco-Innovation and Knowledge Management: How Are These Practices Related?


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The article aims to analyze, using three different tools, the relationship between the practices of eco-innovation and knowledge management (KM). It is known that the commitment of top management through education, training, and deep intervention in the organizational culture, organizational change is essential for the implementation of environmental management systems. Due to the importance of these aspects, management should promote the creation of knowledge. As a way to demonstrate the relationship that is the subject of research, the S Curve of innovation, the Standard Design Process Form (SDPS) and the PIT Diagram (Product Ideas Tree) are studied. These methodologies were selected in order to characterize and enlighten the process of generating ideas in the eco-innovation. In addition to the relationships found between the KM and eco- innovation, a set of five assumptions is listed in order to emphasize the results found in the discussion.

Keywords: Eco-innovation; Knowledge Management; Knowledge Creation; Environmental Management.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Ecological Construction a Model for the Sustainable Development

R. C. Kanning; E. C. C. de Aguiar (UTFPR)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The materials that constitute the urban garbage, the home deficit, the raised consumption of natural resources and generation of residues for the civil construction are subjects of great importance and concern for all the nations. The project Unit Knowledge is presented as a proposal to minimize these problems, therefore the EPS (styropor), the plastic bottles PET, tire and bombonas beyond reducing the use of natural resources as the sand and the crushed rock, propitiates not the use of the nesting mortar, supplies to raw materials the production of blocks and mortar, reducing the volume of the garbage to be made use; it has low cost of production and under orientation technique they allow to the living futures the execution of the units in reduced time.

Keywords: Unit knowledge, ISOPET, EPS, bottles PET, tire

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Ecological Cost Account Application in a Lean Manufacture Brazilian Automotive Project


Abstract: Currently, the society has demanded attitudes from companies to reduce environment impacts derived from manufacturing processes and to reduce emissions from greenhouse gases. The Ecological Costs Accounting (ECA) is a theory for the companies to measure these impacts and then apply practices to solve them in an economically feasible, with social attitude and environmentally friendly. Thus, this study aimed to apply the Lean Manufacturing practices together with ECA’s theory in an automotive company, in order to verify their gains in Economic, Social and Ecological Dimensions. Thus, a study of case was developed in a Brazilian automotive company, in which was implemented a Lean Manufacturing project and their economic, social and environmental gains in seven years period. The obtained results show that it is possible to mix Lean Manufacturing practices with ECA’s theory, in order to minimize company’s social and ecological impacts. It was verified that the company obtained a cost reduction about R$ 118 thousand/year, improving their image for the society and reducing employees efforts, reducing their emissions in 481 t of CO2, which can be commercialized as carbon credits and there was a reduction of electrical energy consumption over 2.803 thousand kW/year.

Keywords: Ecological costs accounting, lean manufacture, environmental credits, reduction of environmental impacts

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Ecological Recuperation of Palácio dos Leilões


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper analyzes a proposal in the form of an early stage of a architectural, urban and paisagistic project aiming the ecological recuperation for the area of the so-called “Palácio dos Leilões”, at the county of Contagem, Minas Gerais state. That area is being considered e nvironmentally poor, unhealthy as it has being used as car crashed deposit. The cars wait for dismantling and their parts to be sold in order to be re-used. In this paper it will be demonstrate new concepts which are related to a cleaner and sustainable reuse since the shred process of pieces and collection of fluids will be more sensible as to open spaces to create new forests surrounding the factory. A small existing wetland in the place will be recovery in order to integrate and adapt itself to the ecological system treated. The paper concludes towards a conceptual framework to support the architectural, urban and paisagistic projects, reflecting on the main steps to achieve cleaner, sustainable and cheaper projects for industrial demands.

Keywords: Clean construction industry, recycling, reforestation, sustainable architectural design

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Effect of Extractive Removal on the Calorific Power of Wood Residues

T. Rossi, L. F. de Moura, P. R. Torquato, J. O. Brito (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: In mechanical processing of wood, the generation of residues is an unavoidable factor. The use of wood residues has gained increasing importance due to the large amount generated and improper disposal, which causes serious environmental damage. Burning of such residues to energy generation is an increasingly usual practice. However, the wood residues hold substances that could be recovered before burning. These substances are the wood extractives, which may have many uses as natural dyes for fabrics, foods and cosmetics, as well as substances of interest to medicine. Thus, it is of great interest to study the effect of extractive removal on the calorific power of wood. In this work, the calorific power of four species of woods commonly used in sawmills (ipe, cedroarana, and jatoba) and residues of urban arborization (Brazil wood ) were evaluated before and after extraction in hot water. In woods studied, the calorific power showed three patterns of behavior after removal of extractives soluble in hot water. For Brazil wood, the removal of extractives caused no significant change in calorific power, which suggests that there is no potential energy in these wood extractives. For cedroarana and jatoba, extractive removal led to a decrease in wood calorific power of 161.3 kcal/kg and 40.1 kcal/kg, respectively, which indicates that the extractives from these species have a positive energy potential. Finally, for ipe, the removal of extractives resulted in an increase in calorific power of wood (67.6 kcal/kg), which might encourage the recovery of extractives from wood residues before burning for energy generation.

Keywords: Calorific power, extractives, wood residues, recovery

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation In Portuguese]

Electricity from Poultry Manure: A Clean Alternative to Direct Land Application

BILLEN, P. (University of Leuven - Belgium); COSTA, J. (BMC Moerdijk - Belgium); VAN CANEGHEN, J.; VANDECASTEELE, C. (University of Leuven - Belgium)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: In the EU direct land spreading of animal manure is restricted to avoid excessive fertilization of agricultural areas with resulting eutrophication problems. The combustion of poultry manure in biomass power plants is an interesting alternative to direct land spreading. In this paper, the environmental impact of combustion and of direct land spreading of poultry manure are compared, considering three aspects of cleaner production: sustainable energy production and GHG emissions, pollution prevention and recycling of materials. In a life cycle perspective, it is shown that the production of electricity from poultry manure reduces the emissions of GHGs, NH3, nitrates, SO2 and NOx to the environment. The reduction of the emissions and resulting decreased environmental impact is partly due to the diversion of poultry manure from land spreading and partly due to the replacement of electricity production by the combustion of fossil fuels. The combustion ash is rich in phosphorus and potassium, but low in nitrogen, so that it can be recycled as an inorganic soil conditioner. The ash is dry, odorless, and free of pathogens, which are beneficial properties compared to fresh poultry manure. Moreover, the amount of heavy metals with respect to the macronutrient phosphate, is unchanged compared to the poultry manure as it enters the combustor. Therefore, land application of the poultry manure ash has the same environmental impact as poultry manure spreading. It may be considered a means to balance the needs and use of phosphorus between regions.

Keywords: Poultry manure, land spreading, combustion, environmental impact

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Electrochemical Discoloration of Alizarin Red S Solutions in Dimensionally Stable Anode

E. M. Moreira, F. L. Souza, D. W. Miwa (USP), C. R. Costa (UFTM), A. J. Motheo (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Alizarin red S is a dye utilized by textile and leather industries. As it is a dye, alizarin red S is a potential environmental aggressor because it inhibited the photosynthesis in water bodies. In this work we evaluated the discoloration kinetic of alizarin red S in dimensionally stable anode in presence of phosphate buffer and, in some cases, in presence of sodium chloride also. Removal values of color higher than 90% were obtained after 5 hours of treatment of alizarin red S solutions containing 700 mg L-1 of this dye.

Keywords: Electrochemical discoloration, alizarin red S, rate constant

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Electrochemical Remediation of 17α-Ethinylestradiol under Different Agitation and Electromotive Force

R. C. Batista, D. D. Cordeiro, S. Manzani (UFGO), I. A. Silva, L. Angnes (USP), E. S. Gil (USP/UFGO)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Among many species that exist in urban or industrial wastewater, endocrine disrupters are substances that can alter the functioning of the reproductive system, causing feminization of species, causing diseases like breast cancer, uterine cancer and prostate cancer, abnormal sexual development, reduced male fertility, increased incidence of polycystic ovaries, disturbances in the functions of the ovary (follicular growth and ovulation), fertilization and pregnancy. In animals may deregulate the reproduction and development of organisms. Among these substances is the 17α-ethinylestradiol as synthetic estrogen developed for medical use in hormone replacement therapies and contraceptive methods , havinghigh potential estrogen and has been ranked as one of the most responsible in triggering endocrine changes in organisms exposed to surface water . This paper presents a study of the use of sheets of carbon as electrode material for electrochemical remediation of 17α-ethinylestradiol. In this context we evaluated the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation for ethinyl estradiol at different flow conditions, potential and electrolytic means.

Keywords: Endocrine disrupters, cardboard, carbon electrochemical oxidation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Electrodialysis as an Alternative for Treatment of Nickel Electroplating Effluent: Water and Salts Recovery


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Galvanic processes are one of the main activities contributors of metal discharges into the environment. The wastewater generated contains high load of salts and metals that must be treated for recovery chemicals and water, saving resources. In this work the treatment of effluents from bright nickel electroplating process by electrodialysis (ED) was studied in order to concentrate and extract nickel (Ni)and its salts and recover water for reuse, saving industrial and environmental resources. This study was started as a case requested by an European company, manufacturer of ED plants, due the operation of equipment used in the treatment of nickel plating wastewater at an Brazilian enterprise.. After many tests using real and synthetic nickel plating effluent and determination of limiting current value in previous works, one bench scale electrodialysis system was evaluated, containing five compartments cells separated by four 16cm2 membranes. It was used a synthetic effluent based on industrial baths composition, including salts and organic additives. Nickel extraction, pH and conductivity were evaluated for all compartments. After ED, the treated effluent was evaluated by chemical analysis for verify its quality. It was found that ED treatment generates, as product, a very low conductivity solution, allow ing the reuse as rinsewater, and a concentrated solution able to fortify the bath and recover volumes lost by evaporation and drag during the nickel electroplating process.

Keywords: Nickel electroplating, effluent treatment, electrodialysis, reuse

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Eletrical and Eletronic Wastes: A Challange for Sustainable Development and the New National Policy for Solid Wastes

R. Y. Natume (UTFPR), F. S. P. Sant´Anna (UFSC)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The growing concearn with the generation of solid wastes in Brazil and worldwide has challanged managers in several areas due to the scope of the emerging impacts, being either environmental, economical, social or cultural. The 12.035 Act which establishes the National Policy for Solid Wastes demonstrates how the brazilian leaders are worried about this issue. The growth in the generation of electric and electronic wastes is due mainly to the growing technological revolution in the past years which has produced equipments in large scale, with varied uses. This growth results in an increase of the amount and diversity of equipments, which for becoming obsolete fast, represent a significant percentage of discarded wastes today. These electric and electronic wastes are considered dangerous due to their diverse composition, mainly heavy metals which cause serious problems to human lives, animals, vegetables, water beds, among others. In this perspective, this work tries to cooperate to broaden the knowledge about this kind of residues and find possible solutions which could minimize their environmental impacts. Companies cases are presented and analysed which have already properly managed their electo and electronic residues. Other cases such as some companies which have not yet implemented any kind of management of the residues they produce and their difficulties to discard these wastes are also presented.

Keywords: Eletrical and electronic wastes, sustainability, recycling, reuse, national policy for solid waste

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Elimination of Mercury (Hg) in the Health Sector: the Case of a Hospital in the City of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

C. R. A. Chávez, M. M. Grano, M. E. A. Corrales, L. E. V. Contreras (UNISON-Mexico), P. Markkanen, C. Galligan (UMass Lowell-USA), M. B. Hernández (UNISON-Mexico), M. M. Quinn (UMass Lowell-USA)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to provides an analysis of policies that are related to the Hg, management practices (acquisition, storage, use and final disposal), as well as the inventory of the sources of Hg in different areas of the hospital and propose actions for the implementation of a cleaner production (CP) program in a hospital in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The data collection instruments were a questionnaire and interview assessment and inventory sheet. With the information gathered and an assessment glass clinical thermometer was selected as the source of the most important Hg. Finally was developed a pilot program of CP for a hospital, to assist in the implementation of alternatives to reduce and / or eliminate Hg. This case study showed some deficiencies in the hospital, such as lack of employee training, inadequate practices for cleaning up spills, lack of policies for the removal of Hg, the lack of identification of equipment and laboratory chemicals containing Hg. The actions recommended include: promoting the creation of a policy to reduce and/or elimination of Hg, to form a team in the hospital, develop support material for an awareness campaign, training of nursing staff and medical material supply for cleaning spills of Hg, formulate policies for the purchase of mercury-free devices, starting with the replacement of mercury thermometers for digital thermometers. This case is part of Elimination of Mercury project in Ecuador and Mexico Hospitals led by University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA, aims at gradual elimination of mercury from healthcare facilities. Participation in the project is voluntary.

Keywords: Mercury, hospital, pollution prevention, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]

Emergy Accounting and CO2 Emissions: Accessing and Remaining in the Physical and in the Virtual Learning Environment


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of this work is to compare the environmental cost of accessing and remaining in the physical learning environment, during a typical school nigh, by the students attending a technicians' level course of Management at the IFSULDEMINAS' (Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the South of Minas Gerais) pole located in the city of Jacutinga-MG to the environmental cost resulting from a session- accessing and remaining for a given amount of time - on the virtual learning environment (VLE) by the students from the Inconfidentes-MG pole enrolled in a Distance Teaching version of a similar course carried by e-Tec (Open Technical School of Brazil) during a typical distance teaching study session. By means of emergy environmental accounting it was possible to verify that a typical virtual instruction session carried by students living in locations where the typical Brazilian matrix hydroelectricity is used to feed their computers will demand more from the environment than their counterparts' use of public transportation to commute to the physical classroom. On the other hand, calculations for CO2 emissions caused by each system unveils a reverse situation , as far as environmental impact is concerned. This study also presents a simulation by which one is able to verify that a student who uses thermo-electric power from a Diesel- operated generator when accessing the VLE would cause higher CO2 emission levels than does his counterpart who uses public transportation to go to and from school and use classroom facilities.

Keywords: Distance Teaching, physical learning environment, emergy, VLE

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]

Emergy Accounting in the Two Systems of Generating Electricity Using Waste

I. Corsini; B. S. Carvalho; E. M. Pereira, M. C. A. Cunha, C. C. Silva (IFSULDEMINAS)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This article aims to assess by emergy accounting, two systems of electric power production. Comparing two different realities, one that uses a power generation system installed on a standalone mill in São Paulo and another in a Sewage Treatment Station (STS) located in Uppsala, Sweden. The systems were measured by indicators that indicate the environmental burden. This methodology presents the results, synthetic and easy to understand that aid in the pursuit of sustainable development and environmentally friendly. Based on our analysis of the digestion system installed at the station ETE indicates disadvantages over the plant unattended. This is due to higher utilization that makes the plant independent of renewable resources (R, N), thus Transformity better, lower environmental burden and reduced pressure on the environment.

Keywords: Emergy, STS, independent power plant, waste, energy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Emergy Accounting of a Course of Management at the Federal Institute of Southern Minas Gerais: A Case Study


Abstract: The aim of this work is to carry out the environmental accounting of a technicians' level programme of Management given by the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the South of Minas Gerais (IFSULDEMINAS) at an external unit in Jacutinga, MG using the emergy accounting method. This work is an integrating part of a broader case studyfeaturing a comparison between the implicit environmental costs behind this programmeand the Distance Teaching version of a similar course carried by the same institution.

Keywords: Emergy, information, CO2

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Emergy Accounting of Milk Production System: Is the Organic Label a Synonymous with Sustainable Production?


Abstract: Agricultural production under organic handling can be found in different regions of Brazil and it is still under continuous expansion. Organic handling is an alternative production system which produces healthier food compared to chemical traditional agriculture. To be labeled as organic, the production system must comply with requirements of Law no. 10,832/03 which supplies definitions and rules aiming to constrain the use of some inputs into the production system.Notwithstanding, organics are usually considered as synonymous of sustainable products, but quantitative information supporting this statement is rarely found in literature. This raises doubt about the sustainable label associated to all organics. This work aims to evaluate the relation of binomial organicssustainable by considering as case study a certified organic milk production systemlocated in São Paulo State, Brazil. Emergy accounting (with an “m”) is the scientific methodology used to quantify sustainability. Results indicate that organic system (OS) has low renewability (%R of 19%), it explores natural resources in an inefficient way which results in high demand for resources from economy (EIR of 3.63 and EYR of 1.23), it demands high amount of non-renewable resources which causes moderate load on environment (ELR of 4.07), and finally it has low sustainability (ESI of 0.30). All these obtained emergy indices show lower performance when compared to values for agricultural ecological systems found in literature. In this sense, the OS evaluated should not be labeled as sustainable, overthrowing the thesis of which organics are synonymous of sustainable. Anyhow, it is suggested that other methodological approaches be used simultaneously with emergy accounting to assess sustainability under different perspectives of scale and time.

Keywords: Emergy, Organic milk production, Sustainable indicators

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Emergy and Hydroelectricity


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The construction of hydroelectric plants is a controversial issue when negative effects are focused on, since social disruption, material or financial loss, crops, forest and soil loss, etc. On the other hand, benefits that would otherwise take years to occur, such as employment increase, arise in shorter run due to this region's development. In Brazil, the construction of “Run-of-the-river” plants, hydroelectric plants capable of operating with small or even without reservoirs, have been in tensified. In 2005, 93 % of the electric energy available for consuming was generated by hydroelectricity plants and according to the national planning elaborated by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, hydroelectricity will remain the predominant source up to 2030. Global environmental benefits and costs for two Brazilian plants (Porto Primavera and Jupiá) were accounted for in terms of emergy terms. The traditional emergy in dicators were calculated as well as new indicators were proposed in order to evidence other aspects, such as matching between hydroelectric enterprise and region, more adequate use of water, influence of reservoir dimension and loss of ecosystem services.

Keywords: Emergy, Hydroelectricity, Environmental accounting, Ecosystem service



Emergy–based Environmental Accounting of the Engineering Course at a Paulista University Campus

A. P. Z. Santos; A. D. Frugoli; C. M. V. B. Almeida, P. A. Frugoli, C. A. F. Lima (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This study applies emergy accounting to assess an Engineering course offered in an educational building at Paulista University- UNIP. The building used by the Engineering course at Campus Indianópolis is occupied by teachers, students and staff. Energy and material flows used for construction and use of the building are evaluated. Information provided to students is also accounted. The total emergy of the building (construction and use) is 1.25 x 10e18 sej / year, where the concrete presents the most significant contribution due to to the large number of classrooms and laboratories used by the Engineering course. The second major contribution is due to the large investment in equipments, suggesting a concern of the University with an appropriate engineer training. The total emergy of the Engineering course (including information) is 5.20 x 10e19 sej (for a course with duration of five years). This value is much higher than that corresponding to the building construction, due to the high emergy of information. The emergy of the building contributes with 12.1% in the engineers training and the emergy from information received by students accounts for 87.9%. The transformity of the graduated engineer is 7.4 times higher than that of students entering the University. This increase is mainly associated to the knowledge acquired during the five years course.

Keywords: Environmental accounting, emergy, university, ungineering, information

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Energetic & Environmental Framework of Biofuels Plants

F. D. Soler (Siqueira Castro Advogados)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This article addresses the variables of energy and environmental of Biofuels Plants, especially when licensed in the State of São Paulo, with focus on the National Planning of the Electricity Sector, the National Plan of Proálcool and Agroenergy, the Bioenergy in São Paulo State Environmental and Licensing Biofuels Plants. Under the National Energy Policy are considered the studies that prioritize the long-term vision of the sector of energy and are developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and National Energy Plan 2030 (PNE-2030) and the Ten Year Plan for Expansion Electric Energy (PDEE). It is then reviewed the Proálcool, program for the production of ethanol from sugar cane that the federal government sought to encourage in the 70s, the production of alcohol in place of pure gasoline, reducing imports of oil. Recently established the National Plan of Agroenergy, which presents some challenges for ethanol such as the development of technologies sparing of inputs and the elimination or mitigation of environmental impacts. The State of São Paulo, in turn, has said and also established a goal to create a Bioenergy Plan Paulista, considering not only the issues related to national and international markets for ethanol, but also the environmental aspects as management, legal reserve, emissions weather and fire, mechanized harvesting, water consumption and carbon emissions. Finally, this article discusses the administrative procedure of environmental licensing of Biofuels Plants, giving emphasis to studies and reports on environmental impact (EIA / RIMA) of such business, and stating the main environmental variables related to licensing, such as: Public Hearing ; Strategic Ethanol Project Green and Agro-Environmental Protocol; Zoning AE, Agricultural Policy, Master Plan, Soil Use and Occupancy; Impact Assessment Neighborhood, Fauna, Flora; Permanent Preservation Area (APP); Legal Reserve (Reserve Legal); harvest of the Cana - -Sugar; Conservation Units; Compensation Environmental, Water, Waste and Wastewater; Fertirrigação System - Vinhaça, noise emission, Atmospheric Emissions, Environmental Education and Heritage Paleológos, Archaeological and Historical Monuments of Cultural Value.

Keywords: Energy, environmental, licensing, biofuels plants

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Energetic-Environmental Assessment of Milk Production Systems in South of Minas Gerais State: Traditional Small Family-Managed Versus “Minas Leite” Program


4th International Workshop

Abstract: In the state of Minas Gerais, which is considered Brazil's top milk producing state, a program named "Minas Leite" (Minas Milk) aims at increasing the productivity of small family-managed agricultural properties by introducing efficient farming management techniques. The program's goal is to reach every small family-managed producer statewide, which would probably result in a social-economical shift within the producing regions. On the other hand, such program focuses on economic and social issues, raising doubts about the actual energetic-environmental cost of its implementation. Thus, the aim of this work is to carry out a comparative analysis regarding the energetic-environmental performance between the traditional model of small family-managed milk production and the system intensified by the Minas Leite program, both of which are representatives of the southern region of Minas Gerais state. The embodied energy analysis and the emissions inventory are taken as scientific methodologies. Results show that for the hectare/year functional unit the traditional model performs better as compared to the "Minas Leite", because it demands 295% less energy for its activities (11,454 versus 33,768 MJ/ha/yr) and releases the same percentage ratio of gas emissions to atmosphere, indicating that production intensification requires higher energetic cost and causes higher environmental loading. On the other hand, when considering the amount of milk produced as functional unit, the traditional model performed worse, because it demands 177% more embodied energy than Minas Leite system 17.40 versus 9.83 MJ/Lmilk) and has higher global warming potential (2,675 gCO2-eq./Lmilk ) compared to Minas Leite (1,508 gCO2-eq./Lmilk). Considering that milk production is the main role of the two an alyzed systems, the system intensified by the Minas Leite program has better energetic-environmental performance when compared to the traditional model.

Keywords: Milk production, sustainability, embodied energy analisys, gas emissions inventory

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Energetic Inefficiency and Environmental Unsustainability in a Brick Making Industry in Alagoas


Abstract: Some brick making industries in Alagoas are still using outdated technics and types of kilns. This situation was seen in an enterprise visited in the county of Matriz de Camaragibe which uses a typology of intermittent kiln, locally known as “caieira”. This paper tries to evaluate how and if the performance of this type of kiln could be seen as a model that widely wastes energetic resources. The study dimensions the losses and tries to understand how an industry could keep this equipment operating. The study faced problems, basically, in obtaining data from the operators of this type of kiln. These gaps were filled by the bibliography and data borrowed by similar cases seen in industries located in the same region. The study concluded two convergent aspects: that the losses were derived from the precarious structures of the industry itself; and that, economically and environmentally, the poor performance of the kiln is unbearable. At last, the study considers the necessity of knowledge about how is the energetic and environmental performance of the different types of kilns used by the brick making industry in Alagoas. These data could be used not only to mitigate the damages produced in the environment but, mainly, for limiting the usage of kilns by the brick making industry. That perspective can be decisive for the developing of a technology in which the bricks could be made without usage of a significant amount of heat.

Keywords: kiln, brick making industry, sustainability, energetic efficiency

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Energetic Inventory in Automotive Industry


Abstract: The constant automobile production growing in Brazil has lead the society and industries to review the concepts of product and process development, including environmental concerns. In Brazil, automotive industries develop their products using tools like Eco-Design (DfE – Design for Environmental), (DfR – Design for Recyclability), (DfD – Design for Disassembly) in a shy way. However, lean tools that reduce the production time are widely used. For environmental impact process researches Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the methodology that best adapts to this kind of approach for allowing ecological and economic feasibility studies. The main objective of this paper was to perform a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), restricted to electric power consumption, in a needle roller bearing manufacturing process. The manufacture of this roller bearing comprises 3 production steps: internal and external rings manufacturing, needle manufacturing and cage manufacturing. Considering only the power consumption of the equipment used in the roller bearing manufacturing, the rings production represents 69%, needle manufacturing 27% and cage manufacturing 4%. The heat treatment furnaces used consumes 58% of all electricity used inf the roller bearing production and should be the main focus concerning environmental impact reduction.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Inventory, automotive industry, Roller bearings

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Energy Analysis of the Productive Life Cycle of the MDP Wood-Based panel In Brazil


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents a life cycle study of the MDP (medium density particleboard) produced in Brazil. This study considers an energy analysis of the cradle to gate life cycle of the product, divided into two subsystems: forest production and industrial production. For this, it was assumed the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique, normalized by ISO 14040 and 14044 documents, and applying the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) method, that computes the total primary energy used throughout the life cycle. According to results, it was checked that the industrial production subsystem was responsible for the major consumption and losses of energy, wi th 87.0% of the total life cycle energy consumption, and 96.4% of all energy losses. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency use, the industrial production subsystem showed inferior results, with 79.8%, while the for est production subsystem showed 95.0% of efficiency. In this sense, we proposed some improvement opportunities focused on the industrial production subsystem, considering some possibilities of optimization of energy use. We suggested the utilization of wooden residues generated during industrial manufacturing of MDP as an energy resource. This residue could be applied on cogeneration systems, to reduce electricity demand, and also reducing demand for fossil fuels used at energy matrix from industrial production subsystem.

Keywords: Forest biomass, MDP wood-based panel, life cycle assessment, energy balance.

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Energy Efficiency Based on Cleaner Production Approach on an A/C System within a Wire Harness Industry in the State Of Sonora


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper shows relevant results on a study conducted into a wire harness industry in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, about Energy Efficiency into air conditioning (A/C) system. The adaptation of the manual from the UN Programme Environment (UNEP) for a cleaner production program with a focus on efficient use of electricity was used as a guide for the study. Several options were generated in order to reduce consumption with different solution plans. A compilation of technical data of the equipment used was necessary, thus making crucial the characterization of the electrical energy consumption in the production area in KWH and how the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent would be reduced by the implementation for each of these by taking into consideration the investment and savings plans, leaving top management the decisions for their potential implementation.

Keywords: Sustainability, Cleaner Production, Energy Efficiency, Air Conditioning

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Energy Efficiency in Maquiladoras of Electronic Components: A Cleaner Production Approach


Abstract: Estimates by the International Energy Agency show that the world’s demand for energy will increase 1.6% annually until 2030; this is mostly due to the rapid growth in the economies of developing countries. Currently, almost two thirds of the world’s energy resources are used in production lines; therefore, not only is energy management an operational and administrative priority for entrepreneurs, but has also become a matter of public and governmental concern. Given the fact that the manufacturing industry is a powerful energy consumer, energy efficiency has become a key element to maintaining competitiveness and core advantages, since not only it does contribute to cut costs and reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHG), but it also aids maquiladoras in their efforts to build an image of prestige and repute in the eyes of the competitors, the employees and other stakeholders. It also helps them developing strong policies to grow as a socially responsible company and paves the way to true sustainable development. Despite the obvious economic and social benefits that efficient energy management means for companies and entrepreneurs, the manufacturing industry in developing countries still lacks strong energy policies. It is usually the international corporation that adopts and adapts energy conservation measures in host countries; if only as an extension of similarly built management techniquesused by the parent company in the countries of origin. Energy audits in Mexican maquiladoras have shown diverse results, this is mostly due to lax regulations and lack of rigor in compliance, poor employee training and significant differences in infrastructure and in the size of the plants. Nonetheless, opportunities for improvements have been identified in all maquiladoras audited and could, potentially, greatly reduce energy costs and GHS emissions.

Keywords: Energy audits, maquiladora, energy efficiency, energy management systems, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Energy Efficiency; A Step Towards Cleaner Production. An Integrative Case Study of the Meat Processing Industry in Hermosillo, Sonora


Abstract: The efficient use of resources within industrial systems is a key aspect to consider in order to achieve sustainability, this perspective leads to the necessity to integrate production practices that incorporate economical, ecological and social perspectives limiting the negative impact of industries toward the environment (Blenginin and Shields, 2011). In matters of resource efficiency, energy to empower production processes is now a priority, correspondingly, there is a relevance on the reduction of the use of energy and its negative impacts towards the environment such as carbon emissions. Therefore the intersection of cleaner production and energy efficiency is reinforced as a more integrative approach to achieve sustainability (UNEP, 2004). This work shows the results of the application of energy efficiency audit with the objective to reduce the negative impacts to the environments due the operation of a meat processing industry. In order to increase efficiency and upgrade its competitiveness.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Energy Efficiency Management

J. M. A. Godoi; S. Oliveira Junior (USP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Starting from the evidence that, in their forms of natural resources extraction, transformation, transportation, storage and energy use, the energy systems interfere in socio-environmental sustainability components, this work establishes the direct and irrevocable correspondence between kilowatt-hour (kWh) or tons of oil equivalent (toe) produced units, which their equivalent pollution emissions, like tons of carbon dioxide (tCO2), nitrogen oxides (tNOx), etc, or human contingents that have to leave their habitat to hydroelectrical plants, etc. In front of this absolute certainty and the high industry energy demand, it’s revealed the crucial necessity of the industrial systems for sistematic energy efficiency programs. This article also demonstrates that, in its activities of planning, production and treatment of final products and waste (of increasing entropy) and in its high level activities, as research and development of new tecnologies, processes, materials and products whose result in best efficiency of resources, the Cleaner Production has connection with the energy and with the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Cleaner production, energy efficiency, energy efficiency management

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Energy Embodiment on Assembly Phase of Self-Propelled Sugarcane Harvesters

MANTOAM, E. J. (CNH Latin America); ROMANELLI, T. L. (ESALQ)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: The energy subject is one the main challenges of 21st century. The geopolitical and environment aspects, they are concern sources to the current economic model. Energy analysis is necessary in order to monitor of scarce natural resources, to supply, a world population in constant growth. Studies of embodied energy in agricultural machinery are rare. The study aimed to determine the embodied energy on assembly phase in the self-propelled sugarcane harvesters. Two models were evaluated, so called: Machine 1 - equipped with wheels and tires; and Machine 2 - equipped with metallic tracks, manufactured by a company located at Piracicaba region, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The consumption of the input used in the assembly phase, was accounted, however, there is no difference in the consumption of those inputs for both machines, because its use from a same infrastructure and assembly time cycle. The consumption data of the inputs were processed, presenting the materials flows used, which they were multiplied by their energy index, resulting in the embodied energy required by the production system. The results show that electricity presented higher embodied energy (16,706.70 MJ). The embodied energy by demanded by labor, as well as, in the infrastructure, was low, could be disregarded.

Keywords: Agricultural machinery, industry, mechanization, administration, life cycle analysis


Energy Generation from Biomass Residues in the Municipality of Xapuri /AC

BOYADJIAN, B. L. F. (USP/FAAP); ESCOBAR, J. F. TUDESCHINI, L. G. (USP); SANCHES-PEREIRA, A. (USP/c. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden); COELHO, S. T. (USP)

Abstract: The municipality of Xapuri is located in a region characterized by a diverse logging and agricultural expansion. As a result, Xapurihas a great potential for power generation from biomass residues so as to foster its local development. This study estimatesthe theoretical biomass volumes available in the region that has a potential for energy generation. For this, we used a 4 MW steam cycle turbine (Rankine cycle) as the baseline equipment. Our results show that local biomass residues are able to supply the energy demand of 26 houselholds.

Keywords: Xapuri municipality, Biomass, Residues, Electricity generation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]


Energy Production from Microalgae Biomass: The Carbon Footprint and Energy Balance


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Bioenergy sources are promising alternatives for energy production in a sustainable world. Nevertheless many research and detailed analysis are necessary to measure in which circumstances they can contribute to it. This paper focuses on microalgae biomass combustion to produce heat and compares the use of different electricity sources with respect to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and Net Energy Ratio (NER). Some fossil sources were used as reference. The methodology was based on ISO 14040/44 standards and most of the data were obtained from scientific publications. The results showed that NER from microalgae combustion is still disadvantageous compared to fossil options. Microalgae GHG emission s were higher than fossil using the United States e lectricity grid but lower using the Brazilian one. Regardless of the fossil options show slightly better yields related to microalgae in the two categories analyzed, the fossil energy technology is mature and has less space for improvements while microalgae is in its infancy and have many technological solutions being developed.

Keywords: Microalgae, Life Cycle Analysis, Greenhouse Gas, Net Energy Ratio.


Environmental accounting in emergy for a house construction

J. G. A. Carvalho; S. H. Bonilla; C. M. V. B. Almeida (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The present study uses the environmental accounting in emergy to analyze a house construction. The energy and materials inflows are evaluated for each stage of the construction. The final emergy flow for the building manufacturing process is 2,07E+17 sej (solar energy joules). The results highlight the environmental cost relative to the different constitutive parts of the building as groundwork, building frame, walls and covering. Materials that are the major emergy contributors are cement, sand and stone.

Keywords: Emergy, environmental accounting, building manufacturing

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Accounting in Emergy for the Reserves of Clay, Gypsum and Limestone from the Point of View of the Brazilian Population Deficit

J. G. A. Carvalho, S. H. Bonilla (UNIP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The present study uses the environmental accouting in emergy to evaluate the behavior of the reserves of clay, gypsum and limestone when planned the construction of 4,468 million houses (deficit Brazilian urban population). Through constructive alternatives 3 (blocks of clay brick, concrete block and gypsum blocks) are evaluated the effect on reserves and a discussion is made. The alternative to concrete blocks is that has a smaller impact (investment) in emergy in the three stocks studied.

Keywords: Emergy, environmental accounting, building manufacturing, mineral reserves, population deficit

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Accounting in Emergy of Limestone Rock Processing for Agricultural Use


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This study performs the environmental accounting processing of limestone rock for agricultural use by the emergy synthesis of an enterprise operating in that sector, located in the municipality of Arcos - MG. In agricultural limestone is used in order to correct the soil pH and provide calcium supplement for plants. The environmental accounting literature of agriculture have only used the transformity of limestone. In this sense, the study calculates the transformity of the agricultural lime including its processing. The methodology presents results that are synthetic and easy to understand and that help the pursuit of environmentally correct and sustainable development. The analysis indicates that the total system is emerging of 8.70 E+21 sej / year, resulting in a transformity of 2.81 E +6 sej / J as a co-product of 4.30 and E+6 sej / J as' Split '. Regarding the limestone transformity calculated by Odum (1996, 2000) the Agricultural Limestone represents a 2% increase in co-product and 55% in 'Split'.

Keywords: Environmental Accounting, Emergy; Agricultural Limestone

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Environmental Accounting of a Building Used as an English School in Ouro Fino – Minas Gerais


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper analyses a building used to hold an English school in the city of Ouro Fino – Minas Gerais. This analysis was made only for the construction of the building using a Brazilian norm that states all the material used to build a house in mass unit per km². Using the methodology in emergy accounting developed by Odum (1996) it shows the percentage of the materials used in the building that holds the English school. According to the emergy analysis it is noted that the material that has been used the most in it is the cement (34.78%) of the total emergy, followed by labor (18.16%), copper (17.70%) and the sand (14.16%). When the analyses is performed by mass unit the material that has been used the most is the cement (48.21%), followed by the sand (35.45%) and the ceramic (4.69%).

Keywords: Emergy accounting, transformity, building construction, building maintenance, building use

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Environmental Accounting of ABC Paulista Using the Emergy Synthesis

F. Sevegnani, C. M. V. B. Almeida, P. A. Frugoli (UNIP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The great growth of the urban population generates a great change in the life style, land use, energy demand and consequent environmental pressure. In this way, studies related to environmental sustainability of urban systems and the availability of natural resources are of major importance. Emergy is considered to be a powerful tool to environmental accounting and measures both natural and human resources to generate products and services. The evaluation through emergy synthesis of cities, states, nations and its base resources provides large scale perspective to evaluation of environmental areas and can help selection of policies for public benefit. This preliminary study applies the emergy synthesis to evaluate the sustainability of the cities that compose the ABC Paulista, accounting the local free renewable resources that give support to the cities. It’s also done an evaluation of the results based on the GDP’s and the HDI’s of each municipality.

Keywords: Emergy synthesis, environmental accounting, environmental sustainability, urban systems

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Accounting of Data Centers: Traditional Versus Cloud Computing


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The growing demand for information technology services occurs in parallel to the ongoing technological advances both in the computation and the me ans of communication areas, in which data processing centers (DPC’s) are either constantly updated or implemented. In order to optimize the DPC’s, several concepts and technologies have arisen in the last few years, among which the so-called cloud computing is the most recent one and plays an important role. Such technique allows for improvements in the equipment use rates and, consequently, a reduction in the expenses with electricity and infra-structure. Several studies display the technological and economical benefits from the DPC’s in the clouds. However, there is a call for complementary studies in order to assess the environmental costs for this new technology. In that sense, applying eMergy synthesis features great potential. The aim of this work is to assess the environmental cost for the implantation and operation of DPC’s for academic use by comparing a virtualized environment to a non-virtualized one. Results show that the non-virtualized DPC demands 3,39E+17 seJ/yr, 67% of which refers to operation and maintenance routines, including expenses with electrical energy, labor and communication links. The virtualized DPC demands 86% more eMergy than the non- virtualized one, and its main cost comes from the acquisition of equipment, which reaches 60% of the total eMergy. While the virtualized DPC demands a higher eMergy amount, it is nevertheless advantageous as compared to the non-virtualized one when the benefits provided are accounted, i.e. the number of users and the total processing power (seJ/user and seJ/Benchmark). In a general way, the technique of virtualization tends to offer a better cost-benefit relation when compared to the non-virtualized environment.

Keywords: Data Center, Emergy, cloud computing, virtualization

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Accounting of Strawberry Conventional Production


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate and present the results obtained by the emergy account of the strawberry conventional production process. The strawberry production was evaluated by the environmental indicators and compared with the orange juice conventional production system from Pereira (2008). The strawberry production system has its Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) of 1,53; Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR) of 1,88; Environmental Load Ratio (ELR) of 1,88; Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) of 0.81; Emergy per unit value (EUV) of 1,15E+13; renewable resources percentage (%R) of 34,68%. These numbers show that the strawberry production system has a better performance than the orange juice when analyzed with the emergy account technique, if we consider both as food products.

Keywords: Emergy, strawberry, Environmental indicators

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental accounting: the change of zinc plating for organometallic coatings to enhance performance and to minimize emissions

J. F. Faro; B. F. Giannetti; C. M. V. B. Almeida; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This work evaluates the use of resources by two different surface finishing processess for metallic pieces, using environmental accounting. Organometallic finishing is gradually substituting the traditional electrolytic zinc finishing, as it improves corrosion resistance and diminishes efluent emission. Moreover, organometallic coatings donot use chromium in their composition. Results show that organometallic coatings are environmentally friendlier than zinc coatings.

Keywords: Coating, zinc, organometallic, chromium, environmentally friendlier

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental and Economic Assessment of the Replacement of Grease based on Mineral Oil for Fiberglass fabric with Teflon® as Release Agent in Dubbing  Process


Abstract: The search of the companies by cleaner and more sustainable technologies has grown considerably. An alternative is the Cleaner Production actions (CP), aimed at non-generation, minimization or recycling. In this sense, this work aims to seek and apply CP concepts in the dubbing process of a company located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. In this particular case, dubbing, also known as collage, is held in a cabine with cubic format, whose sticky material is polyurethane adhesive. As the adhesive is applied onto the substrate, which is done with a specific gun, as a result of that a mist formation occurs and therefore its deposition concentrate on the walls of the cabin. Eventually adhesive layers are formed which must be removed and discarded as waste. In order to prevent sticking and facilitate removal of this residue, the walls were covered with grease based on mineral oil, and which turned the contaminating residue as class I (dangerous). With stocks of CP, we sought to eliminate the need of grease. To assess the feasibility of modifying the bonding process, the economic and environmental evaluation was performed. A better option would be to remove grease by a product that act in the same way. A release agent was tested: fiberglass fabric with Teflon, an excellent non-stick. As the tests showed satisfactory results, the product was applied to the walls of the cabin and began to replace the grease. Thus, we observed a reduction of costs, reduction in cabin cleaning time, not generating waste grease, possibility of reuse of polyurethane residue, eliminating contact between the operator and grease, transforming a residue class I (dangerous) in a residue class II (not inert) and financial return of the amount invested in 1.1 months.

Keywords: Cleaner production, Collage Booth , polyurethane adhesive, grease, Teflon®

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation]


Environmental and Economic Benefits of Implementation of Cleaner Production of Polymers in a Company


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental and economic advantages of implementing the Cleaner Production in a plastic manufacturing company in the closed-loop recycling of polymers. The research methodology was qualitative single case study, developed through semi-structured interviews and participant observation and quantitative through Wuppertall method to evaluate the environmental gains. The results of the research show economic and environmental advantages fairly representative.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, Polymer Recycling, Environmental Advantage, Advantage economical


Environmental and Economic Benefits in the Implementation of Cleaner Production in a Galvanic Company

G. C. de Oliveira Neto (UNINOVE), O. Vendrametto (UNIP), L. E. C. Chaves (UNINOVE)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The chemical components, base of surface treatment processes generate chemical waste and effluents that will drastically affect the environment and causes serious health problems in the population. The main objective of this study is to show the economic and environmental advantages in the implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) in wastewater treatment in a galvanic plant. In this study occurred on proper disposal of solid waste and water reuse in the production process while eliminating the plastic blister packaging equipment and investment in rationing electricity. In particular it will show the calculation of return on investment and the comparison between the economic and environmental gains resulting from the implementation of Cleaner Production. The results were obtained at first by means of qualitative research, reviewing the literature, then exploratory case study participant observation. In possession of the data, we assessed the economic and environmental advantages. For the evaluation of environmental benefits will be used the methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute). The tool was applied to assess the benefits on the scale of the biosphere as a result of emissions reduction intervention on behalf of P + L.

Keywords: Cleaner production, economic advantage, environmental advantage, galvanic plant

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Assessment of Natural Resources Located in Urban Areas: A Case Study in the Bacia do Pina and Parque dos Manguezais

T. B. Jerônimo (UFPE)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Population growth in urban centers causes the reorganization of space, causing serious consequences, and long-term shortages of natural resources. In this sense, there is a preoccupation with the measures for conservation of natural resources in metropolitan areas as the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco. The importance of this work is the proposition preservation and conservation measures in areas affected by the inappropriate use of natural resources. This article analyzes the environmental impacts, using the method of Rodrigues et al. (2000), suffered by the Bacia do Pina (this consists of rivers, and represents a key element in the dynamics of estuarine ecosystem) and the Parque dos Manguezais (one of the last remnants of mangrove preserved at Recife). It was observed that these areas suffer from the ground due to speculation - building, highway and proximity to a shopping mall near by the mangrove, deteriorating by the deposit of waste affected by the disorder of the urban area, among other factors. This shows the indifference of the public on these sites and the need to integrate the community on environmental issues.

Keywords: Urban space, natural resources, preservation, conservation and tourism

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Assessment of the Production of Sunflower Oil Epoxidized Esters Seeking Employment in the Machining

A. L. Klafke, F. Bock, M. Schneider, R. C. S. Schneider, J. A. R. Moraes (UNESP)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the production of sunflower oil epoxidized methyl order to their implementation in cutting fluids for machining process. The steps of epoxide ester producing were inventoried and the impacts were analyzed in an interaction Leopold matrix. The impact relationship were 170 and 48.8% were identified. 18% of the identified impacts were positive, corresponding to economic gains for the region and 82% were negative, corresponding to the use of solvent, solid waste generation, energy consumption for heating and accidental release of organic vapors into the atmosphere. The interaction of these impacts with the biotic and anthropic environment is temporary and reversible, and most are direct and scope local. The production of these epoxides, because they are by catalysis and allow the reuse of raw materials, may be a promising alternative and cleaner for the replacement of components in the formulation of cutting fluids in machining activities.

Keywords: Epoxides, cleaner production, metal cutting, sunflower, biocatalysis

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Assessments of Transportation Biofuels in Europe: A Survey

C. P. Pappis; E. C. Petrou (University of Piraeus - Greece)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: A substantial transportation biofuels sector is present in the EU-27 countries raising controversy about their environmental impacts. A survey of the literature regarding assessments of these impacts is presented, following a brief outline of the EU-27 biofuels production. The main assessments’ results, based on extensive search in sources of scientific evidence and information related to the paper’s topic, are cited and compared, combined with a discussion about these findings. Several conclusions are drawn and comments are made regarding, among others, the “splash and dash” system of European biodiesel, the uncertainty in the parameters related to LCIA of biofuels, the economic basis of their environmental impacts, the insufficient treatment of the land use impact category, etc.

Keywords: Biodiesel, bioethanol, environmental impacts, LCIA

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

Environmental Benefits of Water Recovery in a Tilapia Production System, by Using Emergy Environmental Accounting

J. L. Pierobom; S. H. Bonilla (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The emergy environmental accounting developed by Odum was applied to evaluate the water recovery system used to treat water released from a tilapia production system known as acquaponic. For this purpose, the whole acquaponic system (including the water recovery process by a coupled rhizospheric-hydroponic system) was compared with the same tilapia production system but in the absence of the water recovering system. The present work aims to quantify the emergy environmental benefits when water is treated and recover through the coupled rhizospheric-hydroponic system. Benefits related to renewable inputs (R) were negligible but purchased inputs (F) show an emergy decrease of 29% when water is recovered inside the acquaponic system. Also tilapia transformity shows an improvement of 24 % with water recover. Emergy flow difference resulted from water recovering is 5,86x10e15 sej, representing an improvement of global efficiency of 25%. The emergy sustainability índex shows that both systems are within the range of non-sustainability. Even so, water recovering inside the acquaponic systems enables an improvement of 50%.

Keywords: Environmental accounting, emergy, aquaculture, water recovery, tilapias

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Dimension Rating of the ISE Member Companies of BM&FBOVESPA in 2013


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Stock market is the place where companies can raise capital, stimulating entrepreneurial activity and generating capital accumulation. Investors seek to invest in sustainable companies. Given this demand, in Brazil, it was created in 2005, the Corporate Sustainability Index (ISE) - a pioneering initiative in Latin America a nd fourth indicator of the kind in the world, comparing the performance of companies listed on the Securities, Commodities and Futures (BM&FBOVESPA) under the aspect of sustainability. It is a stock index benchmark for socially responsible investments, comprised of companies that excel in sustainability in the long term. The ISE is a tool for benchmarking the performance of companies listed on the BM&FBOVESPA. The purpose of this index is to create an investment environment compatible with the demands of sustainable development of society and encourage more sustainable practices in businesses. Investments in sustainable companies create shareholder value in the long term because they are more prepared to face economic, social and environmental risks. Integrating ISE is like having a seal of quality recognized by the market as a company that operates with sustainability. For the 40 companies comprising the ISE in 2013, it is considered as a critical environmental impact that one which in terms of technical, social or legal criteria (severity, reversibility, magnitude, spatial extent), demands specific actions for prevention, control and monitoring. However, the ISE do not include the impact of the economic ladder when they classify the environmental dimension of business activities/enterprises in terms of potential pollution and use of renewable and nonrenewable environmental resources. According to the classification of potential pollution and use of natural resources, 12 companies are not classified by the ISE in 2013. When considering the impact of the economic scale of the companies comprising the ISE, assigning weights (intensity 3 = low, 6 = average and 9 = high) to the respective impacts of environmental ISE, widening the original classification ISE, enabling stakeholders to measure interference of these compa nies according to classification by the impact of the economic scale.

Keywords: ISE BM&FBOVESPA, potential pollution, use of environmental resources, economic scale ranking impact


Environmental efficiency as generating factor to enhance productivity - Presentation of the results obtained in a ceramic industry from Ceará State

C. H. A. Bezerra (SENAI-CETAE); J. A. Gomes (UFC); K. M. A. Morais (SENAI-CETAE); I. C. Mattos (UFC); R. B. Silveira (SENAI-CETAE)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The research was carried through in the Cajazeiras Ceramics, industry of the ceramic sector situated in Cascavel-Ceará. The main products produced and commercialized for the company are structural blocks of prohibition, flagstone and blocks. The main substance used cousin is the clay. Effluent liquids, solid residues and atmospheric emissions during the productive activities are generated. The solid residues are generated from the loss of materials for defect in the finished product. A production of more than 2500 milheiros of blocks damaged per year is esteem. The consumption of water, raw material, energy and of solid residues for product had been defined as indicating ambient with the objective to identify the consumption for produced ceramics block, besides identifying the economic loss generated by wastefulness of blocks damaged in the production. With this analysis some alternatives for minimização of the production of residues, effluent had been suggested and emissions inside of the Program of Cleaner Production, such as, Modification in the product, Modification of technology, I reuse and recycling, Compostagem, Alterations in the process, among others. From the evaluation of the raised data the company was divided by sectors (preparation, drawing and burn) for identification of chances and/or problems, plan of action and strategies, barriers and necessities, beyond the identification of the priority level. Had the inadequate use of boquilha the drawing process of the ceramic blocks presented an index of retrabalho verified in up to 30%. With the equipment exchange for boquilhas new and balanced a decrease in the index of re-work in 12% was verified, generating one better exploitation of the natural resources and energy and consequently better indices of productivity and prescription. Associated the technological improvement of the equipment exchange of boquilha, a survey of impurities was carried through that allowed to the planning of a handling of the extration and preparation of the clay most adequate, allowing the clay entrance in the cleaner productive process of resulted impurities and this form providing better in the production. Through surveys in I lease was evidenced that the use of simple door more generates a consumption of 0,08m³/milheiro of the one than with the use of double doors in the ovens hoffmans. With relation to the ambient improvements it is had: Lesser consumption of firewood for produced part, to the end of one year we will have an area of 36Ha of bushes of bioma caatinga that they had not been deforested, considering that 1ha of bush of bioma caatinga produces 52m³ of native firewood (given of the FIERN), providing a lesser ambient impact of that the previous a implantation of the Program of Cleaner Production.

Keywords: Cleaner production, ambient impact, solid residues, generation of effluent

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Friendly Food. Choice Experiment to Assess Consumer’s Attitude Toward “Climate Neutral” Milk: The Role of Information

LOMBARDI, G. V.; BERNI, R.; ROCCHI, B. (University of Florence, Italy)

Abstract: The livestock sector has a high impact in terms of carbon footprint. Lowering GHG emission from the livestock sector deals with implementing climate neutral production techniques in a cost effectiveness way and with developing market communication to make carbon free milk competitive with alternative products. This study aimed at analyzing how information and communications could impact on the consumer’s attitude toward climate neutral fresh milk. The research focused on a case study carried out in Tuscany among a sample of supermarket customers, to assess consumer attitude toward fresh climate neutral milk using choice experiments methods. The participants were asked to attend a focus group meeting made of four different sessions. During the first session participants were asked to fill a background questionnaire and to watch a short documentary video showing the climate change risks. A second session consisted in a choice experiment in which participants were presented with 12 choices, each describing a scenario in which the milk key attributes were planned at different levels (price, organic labeling and carbon footprint labeling). During a third session the focus group discussions was developed following a semi-structured debate about environmental labeling, climate neutral labeling and the environmental impact of individual’s purchasing behavior. In the last fourth session participants were asked to express their preferences on the choice-sets with the same scenarios presented in the second session, in order to assess variation in individual WTP toward climate neutral and organic milk. Results show that information could play a role in changing consumer attitude toward carbon free products.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, choice experiments, food, consumer behaviour. Multinomial discrete choice models

 [Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Environmental Impact Assessment under the view of the elaborators and their Knowledge Management activities

C. V. Viegas; C. S. C. R. Coelho; P. M. Selig (UFSC)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Multidisciplinary action, founded on team’s experiences, but few systematized and highly individualized. These are some of the features of the nowadays Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) practices according their elaborators. This paper presents a theoretical scheme developed to analyse Knowledge Management in EIA, and some results of a survey carried out with 33 EIA’s consultants. We investigate acquisition, validation and integration knowledge processes, as well as the elaborators’ perceptions regarding to the EIA’s aims.

Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, knowledge management, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Impact of Agriculture: Ecological Aspects and Need for Changes

DEUS, R. M. (Independent Researcher)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: In recent decades, changes that have occurred in agricultural production systems have caused a major environmental impact, which includes the planet and mankind. Agriculture has expanded the use of pesticides, abused water resources and soil unduly. However, researchers have sought better and more sustainable alternatives to assist in the development of agriculture. As the use of natural substances to prevent pests instead of pesticides, the use of soil and water, such as drip irrigation, which provides development for the plant and water savings. Therefore this study is aimed to show the ecologic impacts of agriculture and to propose investment solutions for a sustainable and long lasting development.

Keywords: Sustainable agriculture, environmental impact, organic farming, ecology.

Environmental Impacts and Biodiesel Production in Pilot Scale

J. Kaercher; R. C. S. Schneider; R. A. Klamt; W. L. T. Silva; W. L. Schmatz (UNISC)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The biodiesel production in pilot scale could be accomplished with minimum environmental impact. In this work was evaluate a prototype produces at UNISC for production of sunflower oil biodiesel using Leopold interaction matrix. It was consider the process stages and the actions for minimization of the environmental impact this equipment. It was observe that after the needs environmental actions for improvement of equipment it was reduce the environmental impact during biodiesel production. Therefore, the impact in relation to order (direct or indirect), time (long, average or short term), dynamics (permanent or temporary) and of plasticity (reversible or irreversible) was reduces and, it can be observed as a positive actions control, when adopted, they had affected the ambient factors in its excellent characteristics and allow to greater the sustainability of the process.

Keywords: Biodiesel, environmental impacts, pilot scale

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Impacts Assessment of Biodiesel Production from Soybean in Brazil

O. Cavalett; E. Ortega (UNICAMP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This paper presents the results of the environmental impacts of biodiesel production from soybean in Brazil. For this objective it were used the environmental impact indicators provided by emergy accounting method, the embodied energy analysis and the material flow accounting method. One of the in findings of the study are that energy content in a liter of biodiesel is only 2.3 times greater than the fossil-based energy required to produce it. The transformity of biodiesel (4.59E+05 seJ/J) is higher than those calculated for fossil fuels (coal, 6.70E+04 seJ/J; natural gas, 8.04E+04 seJ/J; oil 9.05E+04 seJ/J; gasoline and diesel, 1.11E+05 seJ/J) and also for other biofuels (Ethanol from sugarcane, 3.15E+05 seJ/J; Biodiesel from sunflower, 2.31E+05 seJ/J) indicating a higher demand for resources. Similarly, the biodiesel emergy yield ratio was only 1.46, while it ranges from 3 to 7 for fossil fuels indicating lower net emergy that is delivered to consumers. When crop production and industrial conversion to fuel are supported by fossil fuels (considered non renewable energy sources) in the form of chemicals, goods, and process energy, the fraction of fuel that is actually renewable is very low (around 25%). In this way, the future of biodiesel production is very likely to be linked to the ability of clustering biofuels production with other agro industrial activities at an appropriate scale and mode of production to take advantage of the potential supply of valuable co-products.

Keywords: Emergy accounting, energy balance, material flow accounting, biodiesel, soybean

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Impacts of the Brazilian Shrimp Culture

K. R. Tancredo, R. O. Nobrega, T. Dias, K. R. Lapa (UFSC)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The possible environmental impacts caused by shrimp culture affect the biological, social and physical area, due to the launch of its effluents in water used in public. Non adequately managed farms may cause several problems. These problems are the appearance and fast dissemination of diseases. The environmental degradation due to high concentration of nutrients. Low quality food results in greater quantity of phosphorus and organic matter release. The shrimp production is an alternative to social development, but it can also generate social impacts. It can cause the expulsion of aquaculture local farmers from their local of work. This can socially exclude the traditional communities’ dependents on the mangrove. The ecosystem and landscape degradation is related to the physic impact. The risks of land cover loss, reduction of protected areas, soil salinization are potential impacts to the area of shrimp production. The shrimp production should be adequately planed. If it does not happen it causes several environmental impacts that harm the nearby environment. In other hand, if it is adequately organized it may become environmentally positive. Besides, there is a problem about the mangroves areas. These areas are destroyed to the implementation of shrimp farms. There is a great biological impact because several species lost their habitat. As these impacts advance it may affect the bio atrophic interface, affecting the humans. This paper has a bibliographical review about the main impacts caused by the shrimp culture. These impacts are related to organic matter discharge from bad management practices. This economic activity is growing because it is an alternative to the extractive fish industry but it also contributes to the marine environment degradation. In order to minimize the environmental impacts is take decisions to promote mitigating actions and improve the technology to produce shrimp. These actions include the super-intensive production, use of macrophytes, bioflocs and quality food. The use of macrophytes to treat the liquid effluent minimize the impacts on the aquatic systems, reducing the nitrogen and phosphorus availability. The biofloc shrimp culture technology consists in the use of heterotrophic bacteria that are naturally present in the aquatic environment. The bacteria are capable of assimilate nitrogen compounds and convert it in to biomass when carbon sources are available.

Keywords: Shrimp culture, environmental impacts, sustainable development, mitigating actions

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Indicators of the Industrial Companies in São Paulo

F. Hourneaux Junior (UNIP), H. Hrdlicka, I. Kruglianskas (USP)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: A major challenge for organizations is to establish an appropriate measure for their performance, considering the growing need for inclusion of more stakeholders other than the traditional ones and issues related to sustainability, such as the insertion of a Triple Bottom Line approach - which comprises the economic, social and environmental dimensions. The aim of this paper is to highlight the use of indicators within the environmental dimension, using as its basis the proposal of the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). The field research is of the survey type and had the participation of 149 companies both in the industry sector and associated to CIESP (Center of Industries of the State of São Paulo). Its main results suggest different uses of environmental indicators, with an emphasis on those more directly linked to the industrial productive processes.

Keywords: Environmental indicators, performance measurement, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Environmental labelling - a study on NR's

M. F. Preussler; M. Vaz; J. A. R. Moraes; D. A. R. Lopez (UNISC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Currently the valuation in the society in consuming correct and ambiently healthful products is noticed. Some countries, as manifestation of ambient conscience, the products adopt voluntary mechanisms of evironmental labelling with attribution of "green stamps" to products that take care of criteria of control previously established. In this direction, the evironmental labelling is if becoming a powerful instrument of market, suggesting the importance of to analyzing its laws and elaborated studies of this subject, because the Programs of Ambient Labelling had appeared, mainly, like a result of a change in the standards of consumption and production. It is noticed, by the analyses, that the ambient labelling can help to contribute for the formation of the conscientious consumer, in sight of the standards of production and consumption. The ambient labels configure a system to information the origin of the product, the studies of evaluation of the life cycle and if a process that uses clean technologies.

Keywords: Environmental labelling, green stamp, ambiental education

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Management on the Project of Serra do Mar´s New Immigrants Highway: Study case

D. A. Fungaro (IPEN-CNEN-São Paulo); L. Martins (UniABC); A. F. Margarido (Figueiredo Ferraz Consultoria e Eng. de Projetos)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The Environmental Management System considers restrictions on the project, on the product or on the service, by environmental agencies as challenges to innovation and creating solutions that will provide sustainable development. This is the ecological philosophy that can be found in this project of the New Immigrants highway, where specialists through a scientific methodology solved a complex equation, involving the environmental aspect versus the impact, whose solution produces sustainable development. The implementation of Environmental System in the project brought the commitment in favour of two pillars of management: to prevent the environment impact and the continuous improvement of this project. One could say that the project met the goal to satisfy the socio-economic interests of the population of São Paulo, and produced benefits such as: environmental benefit, through the production of a work environmentally clean, with a reduction of the intervention in the forest reserve, technical advantage, to enter the rock mass, reduced the trajectory of the highway with more quality and institutional advantage, by providing a good institutional image among the public and governmental departments.

Keywords: Environmental management, New Immigrants highway, sustainable development, environmental impact

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Management Program at Tyco Electronics

L. Velázquez, R. E. R. Medina, N. Munguía, J. Esquer (UNISON-Mexico)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The project "Environmental Management Program in Tyco Electronics' aims to help on preventing, eliminating and / or reducing environmental and occupational hazards that are generated in the production process of one of the company's work teams. To achieve this, we will work on the development of an environmental management program that reduces the generation of pollutants and waste in this production line. In a society increasingly aware of the need to protect natural resources and environment, the company Tyco Electronics has the need to start with this type of project due not only to state and national standards that regulate corporations But also as a strategy to reduce costs and increase competitiveness, and especially for its social commitment to preserve and conserve the environment. The team that is going to be in charge of the EMP has experience in developing and implementing such programs within the company. In addition, the company has an approach on caring for the environment, facilitating the teamwork among the rest of the staff of the company.

Keywords: Pollution prevention, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper In Spanish]


Environmental Management Promotion through Collaborative Activities: the Project Quatro+ Experience

C. Henkels; B. Frank (FURB); A. Grothe-Senf (Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft (FHW) - Berlin - Germany)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: This paper describes the Project Quatro+, an experiment designed to promote cleaner production in small and medium size companies around the city of Blumenau. The project develops collaborative activities between university and companies, mainly workshops and consultancy. Production Engineering students take part in all steps of the project. The project is developed as part of a cooperation program between German and Brazilian Universities, financed by CAPES and DAAD. At the local level it is supported also by Municipal Environmental Foundation of Blumenau and by Regional Labor Agency. The results shown that the project succeeded in having management and technical improvements in the companies, and also in the organizational learning among the eco-teams. But the experience also had shown that the environmental laws are difficult to be understand and used by small and middle size companies.

Keywords: Clean production, environmental management, learn organization

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Management System and the Pillar of the Environment - Eletronorte Rondônia Experience for the Sustainable Production of Electricity

F. I. B. S. Bastos, J. M. Degan, E. Temporim Filho (Eletrobrás Eletronorte-Brasil)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This work shows the development and implementation of the results of the Environmental Management System, and the experience of Eletronorte in Rondônia to reduce losses and hazards in the electric power plants, from TPM Program (Total Productive Manager), whose goal is zero loss. This system is crucial for the compatibility of corporate goals, environmental sustainability, allied to the principles of clean production of energy, values of great significance in the Amazon. Its implementation demonstrates the company’s commitment to environmental issues, reducing risk and incidence of environmental fines, and describes the advantages and difficulties of implementation.

Keywords: Environment, power, sustainability, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Environmental Management System ISO 14001: Comparative Analysis of Business Sectors between Regions and Countries


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The enterprises show growing concerns regarding environmental issues, which can no longer be treated in isolation, because they are part of a system that requires planning, implementation, monitoring and continuous improvement, ie the implementation of Environmental Management Systems. Thus, this article aims to analyze the growth of ISO 14001 certifications in industries, worldwide, between regions and countries. The article was built by literature review and document analysis with the acquisition of the database provided by ISO - International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 2011). It has a quantitative and descriptive focus, having been made the processing and analysis of data with the help of Excel spreadsheets and descriptive statistical techniques using the Statistica® software, version 7.0. The analyses occurred in four steps: (i) Grouping of valid certifications in 39 industrial sectors in 2010 for each country into regions, (ii) Separation of valid certifications in industry in 2010 by the countries of Latin America (20 countries), South America (11 countries) and Brazil (iii) The regions were the focuses - 2006 to 2010 - to identify the sectors with the largest number of certifications and annual growth, and (iv) The analysis of data on emissions ISO 14001 from 2006 to 2010 by industry sector and by region. It consisted of some intersections based on techniques such as cluster analysis and descriptive measures of data. The main results are that: Brazil is the country with the largest number of certifications (885) Latin America, while Guyana has no certifications, this may be a consequence of low industrial development, and there is no pressure to deployment of Environmental Management Systems. The sector that had the highest number of certifications in Latin America and Brazil was the Basic metal & fabricated metal products, because Brazil is a major exporter of iron ore, impacting in the leadership of this sector. The country with the highest growth in number of certifications in 2010 was China. The growth largest of certifications was in 2008 with 22%, while in 2010 the increase was 12%. There is an evident concern with the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and ISO 14001 certification, exceeding market issues and becoming a key differentiator for building the company's image. This article is not intended to exhaust all possibilities of research; the data available can be used in different ways, with applying other statistical techniques.

Keywords: Environmental Management System, EMS, ISO 14001, Cluster Analysis

Environmental Performance Comparison of Carbon Black Production Process with the Implementation of Environmental Control Actions

C. P. Monteiro (Axia Value Chain-SP)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This study presents initiatives to improve the environmental performance applied in a specific sector of chemistry industry – carbon black production. The first step of this project was to study all the manufacturing technologies off carbon black in Brazil and abroad and understand all the energy and mass flows in the manufacturing step in order to indentify all environments aspects. The second step was to identify the major environmental aspects and impacts in order to propose Cleaner Production initiatives – enhance efficiency in the use of natural resources; energy and raw materials; reduction, reuse and recycling all effluents generated (solid, liquid and gaseous), which provide environmental, occupational health and economics benefits. This project also considered the adoption of Environmental Post- Combustion Control techniques applied for the wastewater treatment and air pollution control system associated in the industrial process to attend environmental regulations and decrees. Is important to point that the benefits generated are classified according to the approach used (cleaner production initiatives or environmental post-combustion control). As final result of this study was obtained the improvement of environmental performance of carbon black both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and proposed various management actions to reduce the environmental impacts of this activity, for example: reduction of 100% wastewater sent out to the environment (total wastewater generated is reused), reduction of the energy used (100% to electricity energy and savings in thermal energy sources) and approximately 80% of reduction in nitrogen oxide emitted into the atmosphere (NOx), and others improvement.

Keywords: Carbon black production, environmental performance, cleaner production, best practices

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Performance Comparison of Two Microalgae Oil Production Routes


Abstract: Among the various types of biodiesel surveyed, one type is biodiesel produced from biomass of microalgae oil. It has potential to be a promising biomass in the production of biodiesel since microalgae present great accumulation of lipids and fast photosynthetic growth when compared to other vegetable crops. Its production includes four main steps: cultivation of microalgae, biomass separation, oil extraction and transesterification. The present study aims to compare the environmental performance of the extraction step by wet and dry route. It was used the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique for comparative decision-making in case of the practice being adopted on a large production scale. In addition, simulations identified the points of environmental improvement of processes. The scenarios created and the analyses carried out indicated that the most critical point of the dry route is the great amount of electricity involved in step of biomass drying and this must be targeted for optimization. In the wet route, the use of citric acid was shown to be more problematic and is recommended to find alternatives for replacing this substance by another with the same function and lower impact. On both routes, the recovery of the solvent hexane showed environmental benefits and additionally in the wet route, ethanol recovery must occur in order to improve the performance of the process. For decision-making about which route to take, it is evident that the dry route presents major advantages.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Microalgae Oil, Biodiesel

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Environmental Performance Evaluation as a Tool for Environmental Management

D. Fiori; M. Montaño (COC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The present paper brings a discussion about the use of Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE)as a tool for environmental management. Due to its characteristics, EPE can be coupled to other management instruments focused at the improvement of the efficiency at using raw materials and energy, like cleaner production. The paper presents a case study applied to a beverage company, sited near Ribeirão Preto, a large-sized district of São Paulo estate (Brazil). The paper concludes that the use of EPE as a support at decision-making process is helpful to organizations, especially if integrated to cleaner production methods.

Keywords: Environmental Performance Evaluation, environmental management, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Performance Evaluation Based on  the Concept of Cleaner Production

A. Coelho; M. A. Macedo; L. N. L. Vidal; E. S. Correia (SENAI -Bahia)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The SENAI National Department (ND), under the NCCT - National Center of Clean Technologies of the SENAI Rio Grande do Sul technique coordination, in joint with the São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia Regional Departments, developed a project pilot whose objective was to establish an Environmental Performance Measurement Methodology to identify and validate the environmental and processes indicators in companies who implemented the methodology of Cleaner Production developed by the UNIDO/UNEP and intended to get a Certificate of Environmental Performance. In the first phase of the project a listing of companies registered in cadastre as participant of the Suppliers Qualification Program - SQP was elaborated by the Euvaldo Lodi Institute - ELI, in which the Environment Area of the SENAI Bahia Regional Department, located in the CETIND Unit, promoted the environment workshops. Based on the involvement level of the high administration companies, the physical structure, evaluation of the processes block diagrams and action plans were suggested for the SQP, where the possible companies candidates were selected to be part of this project, that demanded as minimal requirements, to belong at least, of one of the following sectors: metal-mechanic, construction civil, chemical, paper-graph and editorial and clothes-textile, that have implemented action of Cleaner Production and they did not have any legal nor environmental no conformities together the regulatory environmental agency. The selected companies signed the Adhesion Term, having committed themselves to support their development of the activities foreseen in the scope of the project; which included the accomplishment of environmental diagnosis of the company, through the study of the stages of the productive process; environmental, economic and social identification of the aspects and impacts; definition of the environmental and processes indicators to be monitored during six months and in an annual basis per more 3 years, as goal proposal and was committed between the parts; fulfilling the Performance Evaluation Data with the measurements of the indicators during the six first months; justifications and evidences of the attendance; an environmental external audit carried through by SENAI ND. The project had as premise to issue an Environmental Performance Certificate for companies who reached 80% goals and to establish a process of external audit for verification of conformity and proposal of new indicators to be pursued as continuous improvement.

Keywords: Cleaner Production, environmental and processes indicators, metal-mechanic, chemical, clothes-textile

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Performance of Cement Industry in Vietnam: The Influence of ISO 14001 Certification

N. Q. Ahn; L. Hens (Vrije Universiteit Brussels - Belgium)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The cement industry is one of the oldest and most important industries in Vietnam’s developing economy. It is also one of greatest environmental polluters, especially in terms of air pollution. Several causes contribute to the adverse environmental impacts of cement industry, including backward technology (many factories use stand kiln production technology), weak environmental management, and lack of environmental awareness, etc. To reduce environmental impacts of industries and improve environmental performance, the Vietnamese Government encourages introducing ISO 14001-based environmental management systems into businesses. While much has been written on Western experiences, there are hardly documentation and analysis the effectiveness of ISO 14001 in Vietnam. This research examines the influence of the international ISO 14001 norm in the environmental performance of Vietnam’s cement factories. The study focuses on: i) finds out the changes in environmental performance between pre- and post- 14001 certification; ii) compares the environmental performance between certified and uncertified cement factories. The impact of ISO 14001 certification on the industry is studied by using a self-assessment questionnaire survey mailing to 56 factories in the whole country and the response rate is 26% overall (15 factories). In additional to the self-assessment, the annual environmental data, focusing on air emission from 15 responses are used. For the management performance, the preliminary results demonstrate that the environmental awareness and attention among certified factories was clearly better than those in uncertified factories. For the operational performance, the results show that there is no clear different between certified and uncertified group as well before as after adopting the ISO 14001 standard. The emission values are all below the Vietnamese National Standards for Air Quality. These results advocate the need for more research on environmental management systems, to explore the causal links between EMS and environmental performance in Vietnam.

Keywords: Environmental management systems, ISO 14001, environmental performance

[Abstract] [Presentation]

Environmental Pollution: Quantitative Analysis of Particulate Matter (PM10) by SR-TXRF

A. S. Melo Júnior, S. Moreira, D. M. Roston, J. E. Paternianni (UNICAMP), P. J. G. Ferreira, F. Camargo (UNIP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: To study is the air quality in the region of Campinas was set up three collection sites in different locations: Barão Geraldo, Campinas, downtown and Paulinia. Environmental monitoring in addition to researching the amount of total suspended particles (PM10) by comparing the values with the reference value for air quality considered regular CETESB (Technology Company Environmental Sanitation) for 150 μg.m-3. After the samples were prepared by a chemical process for measuring technique the total reflection (SR-TXRF) synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique detected 19 chemical elements: Al; Si; P; S; Cl; K; Ca; Ti; V; Cr; Mn; Fe; Co; Ni; Cu; Zn; Se; Br and Pb, addition to measuring the percentage of chemicals related to particulate matter collected. Even with the help of the statistical method – PCA (Principal Components Analysis) grouping the elements according to one of four emission sources that they are: soil re-suspension, vehicular, industrial and sulfates. Getting the percentage of pollution emitted by each source.

Keywords: Environment, particulate, total reflection

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Protection and the Sustainable Use of the Water Resources: The CONAMA´s and SMA-SP´s Resolutions in 1984-2010 Period

RIBAS, L. C. (UNESP); BRAUER, A. L. (FSP); DETTMER, M. C. M.(UNESP); DELMANTO, C. C. (Delmanto Lawyers)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: The preoccupation, both technical and judicial points of view, with the environmental protection and sustainable use of the water resources in the economic activities developed in the country and, specifically, in Sao Paulo State is something so much evident. About this, one of the main mechanisms used in last years is the edition of resolutions by Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA), in the federal scale, and by Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo (SMA-SP), in the state scale. This work intends the study and the analysis of the federal and state resolutions that are connected with the environmental protection and sustainable use of the water resources during 1984- 2010. About this, it is used the Compared Law and Literature Research. The conclusions are: (i) the CONAMA ́s resolutions follow some instruments and principles of the Politica Nacional do Meio Ambiente law and it are linked, in specific way, with the rural sector and with the rural activities; (ii) the SMA-SP's resolutions have the same behavior of the CONAMA ́s resolutions, but with a difference in the time; (iii) finally, it isn ́t possible, in accordance with the historic analysis of both CONAMA and SMA-SP's resolutions, verify some correlation between this kind of specific judicial norm and one stability, constant and long politic of environmental protection and sustainable use of water resources in the period studied.

Keywords: Resolutions, Water resources, Environmental protection, Sustainable use, Environmental law


Environmental Public Policy and Performance Improvement Induction: an Initial Review

F. M. Ribeiro (CETESB); I. Kruglianskas (USP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Recently it has been possible to verify great advances in corporate environmental management, in part due to environmental regulation - that imposing cost for legal accomplishment stimulates the search for preventive solutions and cost reduction. Environmental public policy instruments on this sense have grown beyond traditional standards and permits to economic tools, and more recently to innovative mechanisms called as “performance based”. This kind of instrument, characterized by the consideration of the enterprise own environmental performance as a criteria to regulation enforcement has been adopted on several countries, mainly United Sates. The present article, preliminary result of a doctorate research on the theme, brings an analysis of some important studies concerning corporate (and more specifically industrial) environmental public policies, environmental performance measurement and tool, to summarize and evaluate some performance based experiences. At the end it is possible to perceive a high potential to implement this kind of instrument in Brazil, and more specifically on São Paulo State, both to allow differenced sector criteria negotiation and to face new environmental challenges still not covered by actual legislation, as greenhouse gas emissions and endocrine disruptors.

Keywords: Environmental public police, environmental management, environmental performance, regulation, cleaner production

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Regulation Reform: Case Study for Extended-Responsibility Adoption in São Paulo State Waste Policy


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The establishment by the government of a set of requirements for businesses to operate in an environmentally responsible manner, generically named as "environmental regulation" has been one of the most successfully policies implemented on last century. However the evolution of social dynamics demanded reforms of the most traditional models for environmental regulation, for which various recommendations have been made internationally. Starting with a brief summary of"regulatory quality characteristics" summarized from literature, the present article examines a case study regarding the adoption of the extended responsibility strategy at Sao Paulo State Waste Policy. After an introduction and the methodological procedures presentation, the case study is described and the most relevant results are presented, mainly from interviews with selected key stakeholders. It is highlighted that the case illustrated an important example of the regulatory process inversion, which brought a significant change in the regulated behavior. It is also verified that, although the program does not intentionally included those characteristics, many of them are present, mainly participation, decentralization, flexibility, and the use of multiple instruments, among others. At the end suggestions for improvement are collected, recommending that those must be accompanied to ensuring its effective adoption in the future.

Keywords: Environmental regulation; waste policy; environmental agency; environmental public policy


Environmental Regulation Reform: Case Study for the Cleaner Production Fostering by CETESB


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The establishment by the government of a set of requirements for businesses to operate in an environmentally responsible manner, generically named as "environmental regulation" has been one of the most successfully policies implemented on last century. However the evolution of social dynamics demanded reforms of the most traditional models for environmental regulation, for which various recommendations have been made internationally. Starting with a brief summary of "regulatory quality characteristics" summarized from literature, the present article examines a case study regarding the cleaner production fostering by CETESB, Sao Paulo State environmental agency. After an introduction and the methodological procedures presentation, the case study is described and the most relevant results are presented, mainly from interviews with selected key stakeholders. It is highlighted that although there has been no specific planning, many of those “characteristics” are already presented at the program, especially with regard to participation, flexibility, preventive focus and innovation. It also stressed that this presence influences the behavior of regulators and regulated, although most at those who participated directly in the activities, since there was little diffusion effect. Finally, suggestions for improvement are collected, among which the need for cleaner production consideration in the agency ́s strategic planning and its incorporation in the main regulatory routines, especially the environmental permitting.

Keywords: Environmental regulation; cleaner production; environmental agency; environmental public policy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Regulation Reform: Case Study for the Introduction of the Renewable Operating Permits in Sao Paulo State


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The establishment by the government of a set of requirements for businesses to operate in an environmentally responsible manner, generically named as "environmental regulation" has been one of the most successfully policies implemented on last century. However the evolution of social dynamics demanded reforms of the most traditional models for environmental regulation, for which various recommendations have been made internationally. Starting with a brief summary of "regulatory quality characteristics" summarized from literature, the present article examines a case study regarding the introduction of the renewable operating permit in Sao Paulo State. After an introduction and the methodological procedures presentation, the case study is described and the most relevant results are presented, mainly from interviews with selected key stakeholders. It is highlighted that even with different quality characteristics and intense planning, the program still faces operational difficulties. It is also emphasized the need for greater definition of rules - including for measurement and performance evaluation and reward. Among the proposed improvements were also noted a broader change of behavior on the part of regulators, as well as the need to improve communication of program results and public disclosure of information.

Keywords: Environmental regulation; environmental permitting; environmental agency; environmental public policy


Environmental Regulation to Sustainability: Contributions to Build a Theoretical Reference on the Limits of Traditional Models

F. M. Ribeiro (CETESB), I. Kruglianskas (USP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Under the argument that environmental regulation should accompany changes in how society perceives its relationship with the environment, this paper presents some limits of the current regulation model, based on a selected literature review. Through a proposed taxonomy of these limits, some hurdles to sustainable development attaining are presented, concluding that the transition depends not only, and perhaps not even mainly, on technology, but on profound social changes.

Keywords: Environmental regulation, sustainability, environmental public policy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Requirements on the Product Process Development Applied in Furniture Industries

P. A. Azevedo; A. M. Nolasco (ESALQ)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the environmental requirements adopted by small industries of furniture to make to order process of product development, the internal and external factors that led to the adoption and those needed for greater sustainability in the production system. In recent years, the complex issues that cross the process of industrial transformation and the interest in the environment have multiplied, increasingly affecting the micro and small enterprises, the most affected by the difficulties of adapting their corporate culture to the new challenges of environmental compliance and sustainable development. To that end, 18 were considered micro and small enterprises in the Furniture Pole of Itatiba - SP on the adoption of environmental requirements in the PDP. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and site visits, analyzing each activity of the PDP and environmental requirements associated with them, identifying the end of testing the feasibility of improvement for the industry. The results indicate that economic factors also dictate the way businesses respond by environmental issues, is the adaption by the laws and regulations or by reducing production costs. Moreover, the absence of trained professionals in the field of sustainable development of products provides the increased difficulties in structuring the sector.

Keywords: Products development process, environmental requires, furniture industry

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmental Study of Disorder and Social Vulnerability of Santos City after the Arrival of the Production Chain of Oil and Gas


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The extraction of petroleum, a nonrenewable natural resource, generates disturbance to the environment and requires measures to minimize these impacts. This study identified and analyzed the impacts generated in the city of Macae after the arrival of Petrobras and project ed impacts for the city of Santos. To conduct this research were heard representatives of civil society and local go vernments, and analyzed data from government agencies, research institutes and census. To expedite the discovery of the most relevant, hierarchical criteria were identified and used the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) for structuring and solving the problem. The impacts were studied: Population density, Labor Market, Economic Development, Environmental, Mobility and Quality of Life (Education, Public Safety and Health). The research aims to generate an analytical model that manages grants for public policies, creating agendas for government stepped priorities.

Keywords: Oil & Gas, Social Impacts, Public Policy, AHP

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Southeastern Brazil with Accounting in Emergy


4th International Workshop

Abstract: The Southeast region has an area of over 920,000 km square and consists of the states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo. In the Southeast, focuses not only the greatest proportion of national GDP, but also the most populous - 77,873,120 inhabitants. In order to highlight and distinguish the differences between the states, a review was conducted in emergy environmental and signatures are presented. Emergy indices in each state (ESI, EYR, and ELR) are presented and compared. The ternary diagram of the triangle was used to display the level of sustainability of the region's states.

Keywords: Emergy, sustainability, southeast, development, economy

Environmental sustainability in small enterprises: interactive implementation of cleaner production. Study in an automotive section company

M. S. Borges; E. Rutkowski (UNICAMP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The Brazilian metals sector and, mainly its automotive section, is mostly composed by small enterprises which are exposed to a competitive global demand: permanently improve their environmental quality standard. However, for such enterprises, there is still a meaningful discrepancy in participation as far as self-regulatory environmental management instruments adoption is concerned when compared, for instance, to large companies. Amongst these instruments, the cleaner production stands out as a vigorous environmental management approach based on an integrated platform with a preventive focus. Under this point of view, this study proposes to develop and to apply an interactive cleaner production implementation methodology. This methodology is built by a cleaner production implementation program, especially conceived and created for the small enterprises profile and by a set of questions and answers structurally connected to the phases and activities of such program allowing its interactive implementation as well as increasing value for the human capital, the knowledge and the language in small enterprises.  

Keywords: Environmental management, prevention, interactive methodology, human capital, cleaner production implementation program   

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Environmental Sustainability Indexes’assessment for Water Supplying and Sewage Treatment Companies Listed on BM&FBOVESPA in 2014


Abstract: The critic level of the water in the storages of the brazilian hydroelectrical power plants represents the breaking point of the first condition for sustainability. The total affluence volume minus the total effluence volume results in 6,418 m³ of water per second, which is unfavourable for the national system.The investors of BM&FBOVESPA acnowledge and perceive positive value of the companies labeled as sustainable. In the period between 2006 and 2013 the ESI obtained a performande index of 190% above the Ibovespa index.The clients of the companies CASAN, COPASA, SABESP and SANEPAR paid in theis fees for water and sewage treatment, in R$ average value, 72,5% of the total eMergy they have received. There is a disadvantageous relation between the biosphere and the water and sludge treatment system that is operated by the companies that were assessed.Every company assessed in the present work violates the first conditio for sustainability due to the reduced volume of rain in the last 84 years, but shows to be sustainable in the long range if the defluence ever balances with the affluence at some point.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Water supplying companies, BM&FBOVESPA, eMergy

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Environmental Technology for Tanneries and their Adequacy for Projects of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

E. A. Ananias; S. A. Pacca (USP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This work identifies and describes residue treatment technologies for the tannery industry. The objective was considering each technology face to its potential to fulfill the requirements of a clean development mechanism (CDM) project. The CDM offers a source of revenues that might facilitate the adoption of environmental benign technologies by the industry, and therefore, aligns global and local benefits. Through a literature review we identified technologies that could be associated with CDM approaches and the CDM methods that already have been applied to the industry. Despite their high cost, low thermal conversion and gasification of residues are among the most promising technologies. Our next efforts consists of an emission inventory of the tanneries coupled to technical and economic feasibility studies of the most promising alternatives so that we propose a CDM road map for the sector.

Keywords: Tanneries, alternative waste treatment, clean development mechanism

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Environmentally Sustainable Innovation: Attributes Expected in the Purchase of Green Vehicles and Furniture


Abstract: This article investigates the perception of potential consumers regarding the offer of environmentally sustainable products. Employing projective techniques for sentence completion, it sought to discover which attributes of green products and processes are expected by automobile and furniture consumers, along with the risks associated to the offer of said characteristics. Considering the completions made, it was possible to observe that the 12 respondents are aware of the product and process attributes that the studied industries provide in terms of environmentally sustainable innovations. Nevertheless, it is inferred that green innovations in automobiles may generate a perception of functional risk among consumers, that is, that the product does not offer the desired performance. By the other hand, the completions revealed that the respondents perceive lower social and financial risk in green automobiles and furniture. The results obtained allow companies of the analyzed sectors to steer their innovation and communication efforts towards the attributes listed as qualifiers, while also assisting the theoretical investigation about the decision-making process for purchasing green products.

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Environmentally sustainable Products, Choice Attributes

[Abstract] [Paper]

Equilibrium and Kinetic Modelling Studies of Adsorption of Crystal Violet dye onto Zeolites of Coal Fly and Botton Ashes

T. C. R. Bertolini, D. A. Fungaro (IPEN-CENEN) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The adsorption of the crystal violet dye (CV) over zeolites from coal fly ash (ZCL) and coalbotton ash (ZCP) was evaluated. The coal ashes were used in the synthesis of zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment. The dye adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 8 min and 10 min contact time for ZCL and ZCP, respectively. Pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models have been applied to the experimental data and pseudo-second-order kinetic was found to describe the adsorption of the dye on the adsorbents. Intra-particle diffusion studies revealed that the adsorption rates were not solely controlled by the diffusion step. The equilibrium data of ZCL was found to best fit to the Langmuir model, while ZCP was best explained by the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 19,6 mg g-1 for the CV/ZCL system and 17,6 mg g-1 for the CV/ZCP system.

Keywords: Coal fly ash, coal botton ash, zeolite, basic dye, adsorption

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Evaluación de un Proceso Microbiológico de Compostaje Acelerado de la Fracción Orgánica de los Residuos Sólidos Domiciliarios

D. Di Giusto, A. Ledesma, J. Dutto (UNC-Argentina)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: In this organizational presentation was developed a biotechnology, for the planet's health care and quality of life for its habitants. The main solution consists of a pool of natural microorganisms, which combine synergistically to accelerate and improve the biotransformation of organic solid waste source at home. This method generated as a result a number of economic, social and environmental as well as an excellent cost-effectiveness. This system of waste treatment is intended to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed of, and is considered to be transformed into the perfect complement to any landfill technology by accelerating time to degrade the material and reduce the space usedfor this process. This initiative aims to transform the philosophy which sees waste, harnessing the potential they have, when considered not as mere waste, but as important renewable resources. The proposed method is a microbiological process accelerated composting the organic fraction of domestic solid waste. Under controlled conditions of aeration, temperature and moisture, organic waste is converted into a biological fertilizer in a period not exceeding 20 days. The speed of the process prevents the occurrence of disease vectors, flies, rodents, and the emergence of odors associated with anaerobic decomposition of waste. Is performed on concrete cradles to prevent runoff of liquids, and every time you finish the biotransformation of waste can be used the same crib. The resulting compost is high in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which makes it a high quality fertilizer.

Keywords: Accelerated compost, microbiological inoculums, organic waste

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish]


Evaluate the Quality of the Nickel Sulfate Obtained from a wastes of Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils

P. D. Finato; L. F. S. Rossi; F. J. Bassetti; P. R. C. Neto (UTFPR)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The aim of this work is to evaluate the quality of the nickel sulfate obtained from a recovering process of nickel sulfate from wastes of hydrogenation of vegetable oils. In the sulfate, were quantified Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni, using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). After that the nickel sulfate was submitted to purification process using active carbon. It was observed that the metals Cu and Cr presented concentrations below the allowed limit to the commercial nickel sulfate, whereas the Zn and Pb concentrations were above that limit. The Pb was removed by complexacion with EDTA followed by adsorption in active carbon, and the Zn didn’t show removal with the employed methodologies. The Ni quantification in the sulfate using AAS showed better results in 352,4 nm. The effluent in the process was analyzed and treated with active carbon, being removal 98,6 % of the Ni concentrations existing in it.

Keywords: Nickel sulfate, waste recovery, active carbon

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evaluating the Global Productivity of a Medium Size Agribusiness

A. D. Frugoli, C. M. V. B. Almeida, Pedro A. Frugoli, Ana P. Z. Santos, M. V. Mariano (UNIP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: A medium size agribusiness located at São Sebastião do Paraíso, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is evaluated in order to determine the effects of the integrated production process in its productivity. Results are compared with those obtained for agribusiness without integration. The farm is composed by an integrated production of corn, eggs, pigs and milk. Emergy accounting is applied to evaluate the energy and materials flows driving the production process. The farm total emergy is 1,23 x 10e+18 seJ/ano. The values obtained for eggs, pigs and milk are, respectively, 24, 5 e 6 times higher than the results observed in literature for traditional production systems. Global productivity values for the three by-products are indicate that integrated production processes are more environmentally efficient.

Keywords: Emergy, agribusiness, transformity, environmental efficiency, global productivity

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Evaluation of a Wastewater Treatment System for Constructed Wetland with Aeration Step


Abstract: The constructed wetlands (CW) represent an increasingly used way around the world for the wastewater treatment, this technology is based on natural processes of nutrient cycling and degradation of organic matter in the wastewater at similar rates found in nature. The CW have satisfactory efficiencies in the removal of compounds such as organic matter, has low power consumption and operational simplicity, however, may require significant areas for construction and show instability in the removal of nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the initial performance of a wastewater treatment system by evaluating the physical and chemical parameter settings carried out in a bench scale apparatus treating synthetic substrate. The system consists of septic tank, decanter, free aerated flow wetland and wetland drowned vertical subsurface flow. Efficiencies were obtained up to 89% removal of organic matter in terms of TOC, 87% of total nitrogen removal and 8% free of phosphorus.

Keywords: Constructed wetlands, aeration, wastewater treatment, nitrogen removal

 [Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Evaluation of Aerobic Biodegradation from Polymers Poli(3-hidroxybutirate) and Synthetic Based on Additives by Action of Activated Sludge

F. S. M. de Souza; M. A. Henning; F. J. Bassetti (UTFPR)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of two different polymers by the action of activated sludge. This aim is reached bringing face to face a biopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutirate), and a synthetic polymer based on additives. The present work has been conducted in two batches, employing an Activated Sludge System with extra aeration. The evaluation of biodegradation was based on polymers analysis – weight loss and scanning electron microscopy - and on microbial development - production of CO2 and substrate analysis. Based on the results it was possible to conclude that the biopolymer was completely degraded. On the other hand, the results observed with synthetic polymer based on additives do not allow qualifying it as biodegradable in tested conditions.

Keywords: Biodegradable polymers, biodegradability, activated sludge

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evaluation of Cleaner Production in the Mechanical Metal Sector of the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul


Abstract: More and more companies should be alert to trends imposed by the market, such as fitness for clean technologies. In this context, there are tools such as Cleaner Production (CP), which help organizations to suit their processes and products. Given these aspects, it is important that companies adopt environmental policies solidified in its corporate culture. Thus, research to identify how the CP tool could be applied to companies belonging to the mechanical metal sector of the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, we identified which PML actions are used and analyzed the impact of the same in the companies surveyed. We used an assessment of the use of CP, characterized as a study of case of qualitative-quantitative character. It was concluded that the companies surveyed follow the CP premises more directly at levels 1 and 2, through reduction actions at source and internal recycling, showing an engagement of the sector in accordance with environmental policies.

Keywords: CP, Mechanical Metal, Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Evaluation of Essential Drivers of Green Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Approach

GOVINDAN. K. A. (University of South Denmark-Denmark); SHANKAR, M. (Anna University-India)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: Green Manufacturing (GM) issues became the wide biased debate over the last decade because of its environmental concerns an economical importance. This paper attempts to analyze the drivers of GM with a fuzzy approach. The common drivers are identified through the existing literature and with the combined assistance of industry experts. The Common drivers are provided as stakeholders (D1), company image (D2), competitors (D3), financial benefit (D4), environmental conservation (D5), customers (D6) and compliance with regulations (D7).These seven drivers are getting compared over one another based on the data provided by the firm which is situated in the southern part of India. This paper concludes with the priority among common drivers to find out the essential driver of GM. This study helps to identify the essential driver of GM and in the future it also assists to stimulate that essential driver for implementing GM.

Keywords: Green Manufacturing, Drivers, Fuzzy AHP

[Abstract] [Paper]

Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity on Raw Influents and Treated Efluents on Urban Area


Abstract: The wastewater raw influent have a high pollutants concentration and conventional (WWTP) may be not enough to remove endocrine disruptors compounds. This study evaluates estrogenic activity on samples of urban area and viability of Blyes (Bioluminescent Yeast Estrogen Screen) bioassay on these matrices. Were collected raw influent, treated effluent and recycled water of two WWTP. This assay were able to detected estrogenic activity about 14,66 a 24,41 ngE2equiv.L reduction on estrogenic activity comparing to i other it was under the limit of detection (0,10 ngE2equiv. L indicate that this bioassay may be useful micropollutants on effluents that can achieve environment.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment plant, estrogenic activity, water quality, recycled waters

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

Evaluation of Mercury-Free Alternatives in Hospitals of Sonora, Mexico


4th International Workshop

Abstract: Mercury pollution is a global problem because its toxicity and because when it is released remains circulating in the environment and is spread through the air. This paper shows the evaluation of mercury-free measuring instruments such as digital thermometers and sphygmomanometers as safer alternatives in two pilot hospitals of Sonora Mexico. The data collections were obtained from hospital nurses through questionnaires. The Hg-free devices were in general well accepted by nurses as adequate and safer alternatives to reduce and/or eliminate mercury. The actions recommended in this paper include following a guide with accurate requirements and specifications when hospitals acquire digital thermometers and mercury-free sphygmomanometers, a calibration system for thermometers and mercury-free sphygmomanometers, provide batteries disposal services to the digital thermometers and replacement of batteries when needed in order that the nurses accept better this instrument, promote the use of solar digital thermometers that avoid the problem caused by the use of batteries in digital thermometers, work closely with the manufacturers so that they take over the composture of the sphygmomanometers, and continue Hg training in hospitals staff in order to be aware of Hg hazards and take into account the costs of the harm of the health and environment of Hg pollution

Keywords: Mercury, hospital, pollution prevention, safer alternative

[Abstract] [Paper in Spanish] [Presentation in Spanish]

Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Purchase of a Vehicle, Based on the Vehicle Brazilian Labeling Program

A. C. Reis (CEFET-RJ/PUC-Rio), B. F. Silvestre(SENAC-RJ), A. C. S. Barros (CEFET-RJ)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: At the end of the twentieth century many countries designed laws and benefits in order to reduce the waste of energy. Thus, is created in Brazil in 1993, the Brazilian Program Labeling that aimed to inform consumers the energy performance standard of domestic appliances. However, cars, which are responsible for a large share of fossil fuels, were not included in the program. So in 2008 was created the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE vehicle), which aimed to classify vehicles in terms of energy consumption. Thus the present study analyzed the EBP vehicular regarding their knowledge to consumers, and its use when buying a vehicle. As a result it was evident that the program requires greater dissemination to be more recognized by the market consumer, and a new policy for the participation of assemblers, since some cars that have greater popularity are not included in the program

Keywords: Vehicle Brazilian Labeling Program, brazilian automotive industry, car passengers

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Evaluation of the Environmental Management System at Industry of Leather

P. C. Setter; C. Schimuneck; J. A. R. Moraes (UNISC)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The present study of case it searched to evaluate a system of ambient management of a company of the leader sector of the city of New Hamburg, where the productive process of this company was analyzed, since the arrival of leathers and chemical products until the adjusted final destination of each residue generated in the process.  This study it was based on method GAIA considered for Leripio (2000), being that the company already adopts an ambient management in its processes, what facilitated to the analysis and interpretations of the questions for the involved staff with the research.

Keywords: Evaluation of impacts, ambient management, leather

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evaluation of the Pollutant Removal Mechanisms of a Reed Bed System: Biochemical Parameters

A. M. Islam; T. Tudor; M. Bates (University of Northampton - UK)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: This study was aimed to evaluate the key biochemical mechanisms that occur within a reed bed system or constructed wetland during the treatment of landfill leachate. Soil respirations, dehydrogenase activities and urease activities within a horizontal subsurface flow reed bed were extensively examined to determine these mechanisms. Variations in biochemical parameters because of change in space and leachate applications were investigated. Correlations among the biochemical parameters and between biochemical parameters and pollutant removal efficiency were undertaken. No biochemical activities showed any horizontal variations across the reed bed. For both preloading and during-loading conditions, soil respirations and dehydrogenase activities did not have any vertical variations whereas urease activities at 5cm depth were significantly higher (P<0.001) than those at 50cm and 90cm depth. When during-loading conditions were compared with preloading conditions, soil respirations showed no variation at any depth, whereas significant reductions were observed at 50cm (P=0.034) for dehydrogenase activities and at 50cm (P=0.018) and 90cm (P=0.004) depths for urease activities. A modest correlations (r= 0.474, P=0.023) between soil respirations and dehydrogenase activities was observed. A strong correlation (r=0.777, P<0.001) was found between dehydrogenase activities and urease activities. No correlation existed between the biochemical parameters in the reed bed soil and the pollutant removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) or total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Aerobic microbial activity showed equal potential for the degradation of pollutants in the wastewater which suggests the importance of creating suitable conditions for aerobic microbes within the root zone in the reed bed. Significant reduction of total microbial activities at the middle depth suggests that it was influenced more by heavy metals due to more exposure to leachate. The top layer reed bed soil needs to be properly utilised to maximise the reduction of nitrogenous pollutants from leachate. A biochemical activity can be utilised to predict another biochemical activity but not the removal of COD and TKN.

Keywords: Reed beds, leachate, respiration, dehydrogenase, urease

[Abstract] [Paper]

Evaluation of Procedures of the Party in SICONV

VIEIRA, L. L. (Ministry of Planning/UnB)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: This article consolidates the efforts of the Research Group of Information Systems for the construction of a reference model for the management of agreements concluded on the basis of voluntary transfers funds from the Brazilian government. Here is the Consolidated Reference Model for Product Evaluation Process of the contracting party, scheduled for the 3rd stage of the research project. This model will be used as a reference to the 4th. stage of the project will be submitted when the reality of some selected sample with agreements. Experience gained in this next step will allow the consolidation of the Reference Model. An important contribution of this instrument is to facilitate the understanding of the proposals for the improvement of the processes discussed here, available to all interested parties with information regarding process redesign, since the organization to the detail of the activities of each of these processes. The results presented here do not have a character finalistic. Unlike this, aim to guide the next stage of the project which is the Survey of the Reference Model along with a set of states and municipalities, with their experiences, can contribute to the idealized model now.

Keywords: Transparency in government, new technologies and public policies, government, information systems, e- Government

Evaluation of the Use of Recyclable Materials for Heating Water in Swimming Pools

D. V. B. Pereira (PUC-GO), A. Pasqualetto, O. R. dos Santos (PUC-GO/IFG)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: With the population growth and mechanization increased the demand for electricity in Brazil that causes significant environmental impacts with the construction of hydroelectric plants. Solar power helps reduce energy consumption in power plants, due to high levels of solar radiation and by being a source of renewable energy. The construction of solar collectors of recyclable materials such as PET and Tetra Pak is a way to minimize the cost of a solar collector system, solar water heating in swimming pools and consumption of electricity. This project aims to evaluate the use of recyclable materials for heating water in swimming pools, through library research and its deployment on a farm with surface area of 50 m². In assessing the thermal system (solar collector and tank), has an efficiency of 28% and a reduction of deployment costs by 50 % with other systems.

Keywords: Solar energy, warming, economy

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evaluation of the Removal of Heavy Metals in Sewage with the use of Wetland

A. S. Melo Júnior (UNICAMP-UNIP), S. Moreira, D. M. Roston, J. E. Paternianni (UNICAMP), P. J. G. Ferreira, A. Frugoli (UNIP)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: Currently only 10% of sewage produced in Brazil is undergoing some kind of treatment. Getting a volume of approximately 10 billion gallons to be played every day in the country's rivers and streams, causing major environmental impacts on water resources. The deployment of wetlands also known internationally for wetlands represent an efficient technology for wastewater treatment in places of low purchasing power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a pilot constructed wetland system, installed at UNICAMP, the removal of metals and other chemicals present in sewage, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, UNICAMP using the technique for Synchrotron Radiation Total of X-Ray Reflection Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). This study is important because many researchers have studied the rate of removal of total phosphorus, DBO, DQO, fecal coliform, turbidity, etc., but there are not many studies related to analysis of metals. For the project macrophyte species were used: Typha sp. and Eleocharis sp. for the purification of sewage. There was, for example, that the system input concentration of Cr ranged from 0,050 to 2.9 mg.L-1, while the output with Typha sp concentration ranged from 0,001 to 0,050 mg.L-1 and output with Eleocharis sp rate ranged from 0,003 to 0,500 mg.L-1. Comparing the removal of P for the two macrophyte species Eleocharis sp showed better efficiency, as the removal averaged for the entire sampling period was 71,04%, while to Typha sp. the value obtained was in 23,20%.

Keywords: Wetland, environment, heavy metal, total reflection

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evolution of Industrial Environmental Approaches

J. C. F. Lima, E. W. Rutkowski (UNICAMP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The industrial sector has began, in the 21st century, to rethink and redesign its production processes aiming to minimize natural resources depletion, to foster the use of environmental friendly materials, to research the impact related to the products throughout their life cycle, and to recognize the interdependence between environment and industrial systems in order to change from processes based on unidirectional flows of energy and materials into closedloops systems. During this period, a number of instruments were developed to fulfill the industry needs. For that reason, this study analyzes the evolution of environmental approaches in the industrial scenario in order to discuss the instruments used to achieve the environmental sustainability of business.

Keywords: Environmental approaches, corporate environmental sustainability, environmental management tools, industrial ecology

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Evolution of the Environmental Management System for Enterprise in Brazil: an Exploratory Study of Certifications

B. C. S. Peixe, A. C. Trierweiller, A. C. Bornia, F. S. P. Sant'anna (UFSC)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: This research tries to reveal the information to demonstrate the performance improvement of the environmental management of businesses, from the evolution of environmental certifications as a way to give more visibility to stakeholders. The objective this research is to elicit information related to the certifications to show the evolution of the Environmental Management System (EMS) companies. This research is qualitative and its nature as it is applied, his approach is descriptive and exploratory investigations with regard to the goal, besides being made of a literature search. Was identified in the results to performance evaluation of the environmental management of companies, based on the authors of the research scope and in relation to issue certifications by the certifying body, the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO). It was found that firms use certification as one of the indicators to influence the improvement of performance and competitiveness, indicating the evolution of the system certification of environmental management in businesses and demonstrate the importance of performance evaluation in this process.

Keywords: Evolution of certification, evaluation of environmental management, ISO 14001, ISO 14031

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Experience of Recycled Paper Use in Certification Exams: on the Impacts of Convincing Suppliers to Improve Environmental Management

L. R. Calado (Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität - Germany)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: Paper-Based test application is a field in which environmental sustainability has a long path to improve before reaching desirable standards, especially at the light of techniques such as the Tree Savings Formula, whereby this Organizational Experience Report show a definite example of such statement. This paper presents a case study in which the organization that runs a countrywide test was able to convince the examination manufacturers, thereby increasing the environmental efficiency of the exam at a national scale. This result provides evidence that in persuading the agent responsible for the actual production of the exam’s paper copies to use recycled paper the leading organization executive responsible for the test achieved its goal of enhanced sustainability, with several known general benefits.

Keywords: Cleaner production, recycled paper, company culture

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Experiential Learning: Lessons Learned from Global Higher Education Programs for Cleaner Production in Latin America

MCPHERSON, S.; ANID, N. M. (New York Institute of Technology, USA)

Abstract: Environmental education is linked to both business and engineering in a multinational partnership called Pathways to Cleaner Production in the Americas. In this partnership, faculty from seven Latin American universities are collaborating on the development of curriculum, and practicum/internship experiences that will equip engineering, environmental science and business students with the technical knowledge, skills and expertise required for the promotion of cleaner production in micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in each country. The anticipated outcome is to generate a workforce equipped with new knowledge, skills and attitudes toward sustainability through cleaner production, and capable of facilitating and implementing sustainable industrial development. The partner universities modified or developed new courses, conducted workshops for capacity building of faculty and businesses in their communities, and incorporated experiential learning in practicums and internships. This paper focuses on the following research questions generated for determining the impact of the experiential learning:

  • What technical competencies do the students gain from the courses/practicum/internship?
  • What social responsibility competencies do the students gain?
  • What workplace competencies do the students gain?

A student survey was developed and administered to 72 students from six participating countries. The results reflect gains in knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward cleaner production; the challenges of the experience in the context of working with a business; teamwork, communication and problem-solving work skills; and the changes in perceptions of cleaner production, social responsibility, and their role in a work setting. The survey results for the question regarding what was learned from teamwork indicate that the students perceived that they gained skills in multiple areas attributable to their experience in the practicum or internship when working as a team. Particularly strong across all participants were responses indicating increased skills in collaboration, communication, commitment to the project tasks and work ethics. Students indicated that the experiential learning changed their perceptions of teamwork and the value of working with others. The students also overwhelmingly reported that the biggest challenge of teamwork is miscommunication. The second most common response was lack of similar backgrounds within an interdisciplinary field such as sustainability in cleaner production. It is clear that students successfully gained technical skills from the course work but the experiential learning provided the context for gaining and applying social skills needed for working with others in the workplace.

Keywords: Experiential Learning, Cleaner Production, Sustainable Development, Education, Practicum, Internship, Global Partnership

 [Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]


Exploration and Practice on the Compulsory Cleaner Production Auditing of Key Enterprise in China

Song Dan-na, Duan Ning, Bai yan-ying, Yin Jie (China National Cleaner Production Center-China)

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The very big result in the enterprise voluntary cleaner production auditing has been obtained since cleaner production was carried out in our country, and our country has been generally acknowledged as in the best development country for cleaner production. More and more key enterprises have implemented the cleaner production auditing in recent years. The work for cleaner production has been done in recent ten years. With the annunciating key enterprises from each province environment protection hall for recent years, cleaner production auditing has been done by thousands of enterprises involving in more than twenty industries. Through the key enterprises of compulsory auditing of exploration and practice, this article on the key enterprises of compulsory cleaner production auditing need, innovation, implementation of status and elaborating the problems.

Keywords: Key enterprise, compulsory cleaner production auditing, auditing practice

[Abstract] [Paper]

Exploring the Potentialities of Emergy Accounting in Studying the Limits of Growth for Urban Productive Systems


Abstract: Cities are important urban productive systems in which its main goal could be considered as the innovation supplierto generate economic growth. As well as all social organization managed by economies of scale, cities have a tendency of eventually reduce or even stop its growth. In this scenario, public policies are essential to avoid a potential collapse of society. The sustainability of cities have been studied through different methodological approaches, but few scientific works assessed the limits of its growth. This work aims to explore the potentialities of emergy accounting (with an “m”) in the discussions about the limits of growth for urban productive systems. The cities named Araraquara, BragançaPaulista, Campinas, São Paulo, and Taubaté were considered as case study due to their socio-economic importance within São Paulo State boundaries, Brazil. Time leg considered was from 1999 to 2011. Results indicate that all assessed cities have the same development pattern as showed by the dynamics of “empower” (in seJ/yr), in which the differences are related to current development degree of cities. In parallel, all assessed cities showed an increase in their efficiency estimated by the conversion of input materials and energy (measured in seJ) into outputs of goods and services (measured in $), however, the efficiency stabilization along all evaluated period was not observed. This suggests that limits of growth as hypothesized in this work does not exist, or it was not reached yet, or even the time leg considered was not long enough to observe that stabilization. Although results did not allow to verify the limits of growth for the assessed cities, this work can be considered important due to its methodological approach used in assessing urban productive system, including the top-down approach, the input-output model of systems functioning, and the proposition of rainfall transformity calculates as the thermal exchange (14,150 seJ/J).

Keywords: Cities, Emergy, Empower, Limits of growth, Rainfall transformity

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


Extraction of Caffeine from the Husk of Coffea arabica

C. R. Cardoso, F. F. G. Telles, J. V. Nicolini, R. Santório, M. R. T. Halasz (DEQ / FAACZ)

 3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The high amount of waste generated in coffee stimulates studies of valorization ways of these. In order to make use of the coffee husk and decrease the generated environmental impacts in this activity, this study aims to define a caffeine extraction and purification methodology from Coffea arabica husk using dichloromethane as extracter solvent. The extraction of caffeine was performed using coffee husk roasted at 160 ºC for a period of 5 minutes, by direct contact with agitation, indirect contact using Soxhlet and direct contact without agitation for 8 hours, resulting in 50% , 47% and 40% efficiencies respectively. Aiming to evaluate the direct contact with agitation method, the extraction efficiency behavior was determined according 1, 4 and 8 hours extraction times, obtaining 32%, 33% and 55% respectively, suggesting efficiency increase in over time. For the same method in order to analyze the extraction efficiency behavior according the husk/solvent ratio of 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20, getting 51%, 55% and 21,1% respectively, indicating an efficiency decrease according to husk/solvent ratio decrease. The caffeine extraction efficiency from this study was compared with some references data and these reviews can be seen that dichloromethane is another alternative of organic solvent to extract caffeine. In the caffeine purification was used a methodology in which the caffeine was treated with calcium oxide, activated coal and submitted to crystallization and adsorption process. The results showed that is possible to obtain an 99,95% efficiency and a 90,58% purity.

Keywords: Coffee husk, caffeine, extraction, purification

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]

F - L

Factors Analysis on Promotion of Cleaner Production in Compulsory Enterprises

Dan Zhigang; Duan Ning; Yu Xiuling; Yin Jie; Bai Yanying; Song Dan-na (National Cleaner Production Center - China)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: Effects of economy, pollution press and external conditions on promotion of cleaner production (CP) in compulsory enterprises were analyzed by regression method. As results, promotion of CP in compulsory enterprises depend on economy and pollution press presently. This drives greater role of the driving forces are internal, external role to be strengthened. At present, the per capita GDP for each additional 10,000 Yuan increases compulsory enterprises audited rate by 5.9 percent, sulfur dioxide emissions per capita for each additional 10kg will lead to compulsory enterprises audited rate increased by 0.8%. In future, the main power for promotion of CP in compulsory enterprises come from improving external conditions such as relevant systems, regulatory policies, incentives and public participation.

Keywords: Compulsory enterprises, cleaner production, promotion, factors analysis

[Abstract] [Paper]

Feasibility of Using Scrap Tires How the Composition of Concrete Aggregates Sidewalk to Rubber

A. C. A. Romualdo, D. E. dos Santos, L. M. de Castro (IFG), W. P. de Menezes (Furnas Electric Center), A. Pasqualetto, O. R. dos Santos (IFG) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The disposal of scrap tires has become an environmental problem evident. The objective is to develop a technology that is capable of reusing these wastes inserting them into the composition of concrete paving of sidewalks, replacing the fine aggregate. For four traits that were made of concrete, one conventional and three with the addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of zest tires. The tests were conducted at ages 3, 7 and 28 days in body-in- cylindrical specimens of dimensions 10 cm x 20 cm and body-of-proof prismatic of dimensions 5cm x 5cm x 20cm, evaluating properties such as tensile and compressive strength in flexion, respectively. The results showed that the trait that best satisfy the use for paving sidewalks was 5% plus tire fibers, however, despite losing in strength, the concrete rubber won in other mechanical properties inherent in conventional concrete, mainly related to flexibility. The use of concrete could promote the reduction of scrap tires improperly disposed into the environment.

Keywords: Scrap tires, fiber, rubber, concrete, resistance

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Fencing Blocks Using Recycled Rubble

R. M. Abreu; R. W. Lopes; R. Arzak, A. E. Salvi (UNIP)

2nd International Workshop

Abstract: The study checks the possibility of making fencing blocks from civil construction rubble and residues, RDC, the latter in compliance with the classes established by Resolution 307 of the CONAMA, which are residues of class A, B and C. Two methods of blocks production were prepared: the first one using wooden forms in non commercial sizes and smaller scales; the second method using forms and industrial equipments which are currently in use for the production of commercial concrete blocks. The results showed the viability of making fencing blocks by recycling the rubble.

Keywords: Recycling, rubble, blocks of fence

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Fenton's Reaction by Sulphide Oxidation on Coal Mining Rejects

CIVEIRA, M. S.; LIMA, B. D.; SILVA, L. F. O.; OLIVEIRA, M. L. S.; KAUTZAMNN, R. M. (La Salle Universitary Center)


Abstract: Fenton’s reaction is used in acceleration weathering test for sulphides associated with Brazilian Coal Mining Residues (CMR), that are vulnerable to oxygen and water during the mining of coal. TEM and SEM/EDX were used to determinate the origin, occurrence and ordering of minerals in remaining coals and other lithological units, before and after applying the test. Oxidation of CMRs was analysed by determination soluble sulphur (sulphate) and dissolved metals by ICP-MS or ICP OES. As dissolved sulphate increases, dissolved Zn, Cd, Cu and Co concentrations increase, conducting to undetectable amounts in the remaining solid phases; dissolved Ni and Mn also increase with the mobilized sulphur, but the remainder in the solids is the most relevant fraction; Fe and Pb are not mobilized due to precipitation as jarosite or hematite in the case of Fe or as sulphate in the case of Pb. Agreement between the observed results and the predictions by geochemical modelling is discussed. The accelerated weathering procedure based on Fenton’s Reaction has shown the release of toxic metals from the sulphide fractions associated with coal residues. The use of SEM/EDX, TEM, XRD, ICP-MS and ICP OES analyses were conducted on various samples from the Santa Catarina coal region with the aim of improving the understanding of the mineralogy and geochemistry of CMRs. The measurements were conducted on the original materials as well as on the materials left after applying the accelerated oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly with the theoretical predictions by geochemical modelling, the experimental results demonstrate the effective oxidation of pyrite, as well as the other metal sulphides, by hydrogen peroxide within a short time period complete after 72 h. In terms of relative mobility (% of total metal released during the test), Cu, Co, Cd and Zn appear as metals of high mobility, liberating practically all total content. The released concentration of Ni and Mn increases as sulphate increases but a considerable concentration of both metals remains immobile in the solid phases. The Fe presentes a relatively lower release, because it suffers processes of further immobilization after pyrite oxidation, even at lower pH values, due to secondary mineral precipitation, such as jarosite; this fact considerably limits its mobility. Finally, Pb presents a practically null mobility and it does not represent a risk of potential contamination even in samples with high sulphide concentrations due to the possible formation of insoluble lead sulphate.

Keywords: Fenton’s Reaction, accelerated weathering, coal mining residues, environmental impact

[Abstract] [Paper]


Financial analysis of the substitution of the electric shower for the heater under the optics of the final user

C. C. Silva (UNIP); F. R. M. Marques (BSP-Business School - SP)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: The natural gas has gained eminence as a multiple-use fuel, and one as the possibilities is its use as substitute of the electrical shower bath. This study aims to financially compare the most common domiciliary water heating systems, from the consumer’s view, it means, the instantaneous electrical heating (the electrical shower bath) and the instantaneous gas heating.

Keywords: Electrical shower bath, electrical heating, gas heating

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Firewood Consume Reduction Trough Cleaner Production: A Red Ceramic case

A. F. F. Queiroga; E. M. M. A. Nóbrega; E. P. de Almeida; L. R. Porto; T. C. B. Pereira (CEPIS-PB); C. Buser (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz - Switzerland)

1st International Workshop

Abstract: In some companies, the consumption of firewood is the third highest production cost so that the misuse of this energetic resource may cause many economical and/or environmental losses. With this in mind, a tunnel kiln of a red ceramic manufacturer was analysed through energy and mass balance, which is one of the steps of the Cleaner Production Methodology, in order to optimize the use of this resource and reduce the environmental impacts generated by this fuel. From the assessment of the main inputs and outputs of the company – ‘green’ (unfired) bricks, fired bricks, firewood, energy and gas - it was perceived that there are some opportunities of implementation of options so that companies may achieve economical and environmental benefits such as: heat recovering of the chimney; standardization of the heat distribution in the heated zone, and an increase in the air flow from the cooling area to the firing zone.

Keywords: Tunnel kiln, firewood and heat

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]

Firm’s Sustainable Performance: Proposal of an Evaluation Index for a Chemical Brazilian Company


4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper aims to propose a model for building a Composite Index of Sustainable Development - ICDS (in Portuguese), from the aggregation of various indicators of economic, environmental and social dimensions, for the purpose of tracking sustainability-related performance of a particular company. Indicators related to the topics considered strategic for one company, after selection, are normalized, weighted and aggregated into three sub-indices to finally be joined and make it possible to generate an overall indicator. The method was applied in Braskem, a the biggest chemical Brazilian company, where the composite index was calculated using the indicators reported by this company in the past four years, according to what is recommended by Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The weighting of indicators was supported by the macro-objectives from company’s vision, and to strategic indicators higher weights were considered. The results of the application of this model were considered satisfactory, because in addition to providing partial numbers for each performance dimension evaluated, it was shown that the tool showed great flexibility in the steps of selection, normalization and weighting of indicators, making it possible the application in different contexts and companies.

Keywords: SustainabilityiIndicators, sustainability evaluation model, chemical industry, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

Flexible PVC, Plasticizers and New Trends


Abstract: In 2011, the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) consumption in Brazil was more than double than the total of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), reaching more than 1.16 million tons. From this, almost 38% were employed in flexible application such as packaging (films, mainly), laminates (e.g. floorings), wire, cables and hoses. In this application, it is common the use of plasticizers, chemical components that stay between polymeric chains, decreasing the attraction between them by diminishing the strength of the secondary bonds that, and consequently, decreases the material resistance to deformation. The objective of this paper was to present the national and international trends related to the replacement of plasticizers employed in flexible PVC, mainly the most consumed of them, the dicotylphthalte (DOP). This plasticizer, despite the excellent cost/performance ratio, presents restrictions related to its use in some applications (for instance, packaging, toys and school supplies), due to the possibility of contaminating the products in which they are employed. Outside Brazil, one of the most common options is dioctylterephthalate, that can be produced from chemical recycling of PET bottles and does not present any restrictions.

Keywords: PVC, PET, DOP, DOTP, plasticizer

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese] [Presentation in Portuguese]


From Modern Thermodynamics to How Nature Works – a View of Emergent Paradigms Associated with Sustainability

E. Bittencourt (UNICAMP) 

3rd International Workshop

Abstract: The importance of the second law of thermodynamics, already called the most metaphysical of all laws of nature, as key to understand the questions of ecology and sustainability is discussed, as well as the a fast paced conceptual evolution that gained momentum in the last 50 years, changing our view of Nature. Classical thermodynamics, is associated with the tendency to disorganization, while nonlinear irreversible thermodynamics, introduces the concept of emerging ordered dissipative structures, a necessary tool to deal with the nature of living beings and its social, economic and ecological aggregates. Most introductory texts in thermodynamics are limited in scope , restricting the expositions to the study of equilibrium systems- meaning the study of idealized, infinitely slow process, hardly a situation encountered by the professional life, and far away from how nature works, as an coherent and complex aggregate of dissipative processes. Dissipative structures are living (i.e. amoeba and humans), and non-living (i.e. tornadoes, hurricanes, the gulfstream), or composed by non-living and living, like economies, factories, social structures. The author’s teaching experience gives evidence that undergraduate students are ill prepared for the discovery and fascination of how nature works, and consequently striving for sustainability. Systems of major interest to the issue of sustainability are open, coherent, purposive, and irreversible. Irreversible thermodynamics is presented as an element for the understanding and unification of a wide range of disciplines needed by the student, but still subjected to a fragmentation of a somewhat bureaucratic nature. This integration benefited from the enormous development of computers, and its use in the study, as an example, of nonlinear dynamics system with wide applications in various fields including engineering, biology, ecology, economics, and sociology.

Keywords: Thermodynamics, open systems, non-linear dynamics, sustainability

[Abstract] [Paper] [Presentation]

From the Amazon’s Traditional Knowledge to Innovation: An Study of SME Natural Medicines Producers in Manaus

BOTELHO, L. (IFAM/Erasmus University);  PUGA, S. M. F. (IFAM) CAMPOS, I. (UFPA); CHAVES, F. C. M. (EMBRAPA) 

Abstract: Using the approach of Local Productive Arrangement we did a case study on innovation in Manaus (Amazonas/Brazil) with the goal of researching Micro and Small Companies which, together with local research and fostering institutions, make up an agglomerate which produces cosmetics and medicines based on indigenous knowledge and natural prime materials from the Amazon. Considering the neo-schunpeterian methodology, we found that there are product and process innovations, and at the same time we find characteristics of an underdeveloped economy. In spite of the difficulties we show that it is possible to innovate in regions on the periphery of global capitalism, such as the Amazon. There is a need for more robust institutions to increase feasibility of cooperation based on mutual trust. We conclude that to intensify the innovation processes in the value chains we need greater local content and not only prime materials, thus including specialized services and products and capital assets. Notwithstanding, even recognizing recent conquests, we finalize this Project also mentioning huge barriers in the regulatory apparatus (legislation) that need to be overcome.

Keywords: Micro and Small Companies, Amazon, Traditional Knowledge, Innovation

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Fiscal Stimulus to the Green Economy. A case Study about a Tax Incentive for PET Recycling

DENNY, D. M. T. (USP/Pinheiro Pedro Lawyers); PEDRO, A. F. P.; MEKHITARIAN, K. C.; SILVA, E. M.; FIORINI, K.; LIBARDI, I.; ONOHARA, A.; MEDICI, F. (Pinheiro Pedro Lawyers)

4th International Workshop

Abstract: This paper discusses the importance of Brazil for the implementation of the Green Economy, the role of laws inducing sustainable development and the role of taxation to promote socially and environmentally responsible development. Consider the specific case of positive results obtained mainly in São Paulo, Brazil, with the taxwaiver of 60% of the tax ‘imposto sobre a circulação de mercadorias e serviços’- ICMS, done by the National Tax Policy Committee. The agreement 08/03, which was consolidated by tax waives encouraged the collection of PET packaging, created jobs, protected the environment and stimulated recycling.

Keywords: Development, Environment, Taxation, PET Packaging


Gas Mitigation Strategies Greenhouse In Brazilian Livestock


Abstract: Efficient practices for reducing emissions has a direct link between the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the efficiency with which producers use natural resources. Possible interventions to reduce emissions are largely based on technologies and practices that improve production efficiency levels in animals and herd. They include the use of a better quality and power balancing to reduce breakthrough emissions. Breeding improvement and animal health helps reduce flock overhead and related emissions. Management practices of waste to ensure the recovery and recycling of nutrients and energy contained in manure and improvements in efficiency of energy use over supply chains can further contribute to the mitigation.

Keywords: Mitigation, greenhouse gases, livestock

[Abstract] [Paper in Portuguese]


Geochemical of Volcanic Rock Powder Sample from Serra Geral Formation: An Important Remineralizer

DALMORA, A. C., RAMOS, C. G., SILVA, L. F. O.; KAUTZAMNN, R. M. (La Salle Universitary Center)

Abstract: Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS),